It feels as though most of the clip when believing about psychological science and the great parts that have been made to it. that most of them have been from work forces. but along the manner there have been several influential adult females that have contributed to the field of psychological science as good. Just like work forces. there were several adult females who were innovators. theoreticians. and counsellors ; many of these adult females have contributed to the field of psychological science in their ain special between the old ages of 1850 and 1950. Of all these astonishing adult females who are innovators. theoreticians. and counsellors. the 1 who stands out the most is Anna Freud. This paper will travel on to explicate Anna Freud’s background. her theoretical position. and parts to the field of psychological science.
Anna Freud was born December 3. 1895. She was born to Martha and Sigmund Freud. the youngest of six kids. Anna had a really close relationship with her male parent all throughout her life. but was distant with her female parent and most of her other siblings. but had an even worse relationship with her older sister Sophie. who was merely two and a half old ages older than her. Anna referred to her as her challenger. In 1912 Anna finished her instruction at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna. but was still diffident of a calling. She felt as if she had non learned that much from school ; most of her instruction came from her father’s friends and co-workers. After college Anna went to England in 1914 to better her English and subsequently on became an simple school instructor. ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. )
By 1910 Anna was already involved in depth psychology because she was reading her male parent. Sigmund Freud’s work. but she did non go earnestly involved until he began analysing her in 1918. This was wholly normal for a male parent to analyse his girl ; it was before any type of orthodoxy was established. In 1920 the two of them attended the International Psychoanalytical Congress at The Hague ; by now the two of them had the same work and friends in common. One of their common friends was author and psychoanalyst Lou Andreas-Salome. “Anna’s literary involvements paved the manner for her future calling. “The more I became interested in depth psychology. ” she wrote “the more I saw it as a route to the same sort of wide and deep apprehension of huan nature that authors possess. ” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
In 1922 Anna became a member of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society by showing them with her paper. “Beating Fantasies and Daydreams” . By 1923 she was practising her ain depth psychology with kids and two old ages subsequently she was learning a seminar at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. All of her work resulted in her composing a book. which was a series of talks that was directed towards instructors and parents entitled: “Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis ( 1927: American 1928 ) “Later she was to state of this period: “Back so in Vienna we were all so aroused – full of energy: it was as if a whole new continent was being explored. and we were the adventurers. and we now had a opportunity to opportunity things…” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
Anna’s male parent grew highly sick from malignant neoplastic disease in 1923 and became really dependent on her attention and nursing. Sigmund finally needed intervention. but that was in Berlin. and they were in Vienna. hence Anna accompanied her male parent to Berlin for his intervention. It was because of Sigmund Freud’s unwellness that a “Secret Committee” was formed to protect depth psychology against onslaughts ; Anna was a member for certain. the members were given rings as a item of their trust. After her father’s decease she took one of his rings and turned it into a broach. ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. )
Between the old ages of 1927 and 1934 Anna was General Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association ; she continued to work on her kid analysis pattern. every bit good as held seminars on the topic. organized conferences. and when at place she continued to take attention of her sallow male parent. “She besides acted as his public representative at such public occasions as the dedication of a plaque at his place of birth in Freiberg for his award of the Goethe Prize in Frankfurt” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
In 1935 Anna became the manager of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the undermentioned twelvemonth she published another book. which was a really influential survey of the “ways and agencies by which the self-importance wards off unpleasure and anxiety” . called The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense. This book was different from the “traditional bases of psychoanalytical through in the thrusts: it became a founding work of ego psychological science and established her repute as a pioneering theoretician” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
In the 1930’s the economic and political state of affairs had become worse and Anna was really concerned by he state of affairs of the hapless and involved herself along with her womb-to-tomb friend. Dorothy Burlingham. in charitable enterprises. In 1937 Anna was able to unite charitable events with her ain work. Edith Jackson funded a nursery school for kids of the hapless in Vienna that Anna and Dorothy decided to run. While in charge at that place. Anna was able to detect infant behaviour and experiment with their eating forms.
The kids were allowed to take their ain nutrient. had freedom. and organized their ain playday. “Though some of the children’s parents had been reduced to imploring. Anna wrote “… we were really struck by the fact that they brought the kids to us. non because we fed and clothed them and maintain them for the length of the twenty-four hours. but because “they learned so much” . i. e. they learned to travel freely. to eat independently. to talk. to show their penchants. etc. To our surprise the parents valued this beyond everything” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
Unfortunately in 1938 the baby’s room had to be closed because Austria had been taken over by the Nazis and the Freud household had to fly the state. regardless of Sigmund’s wellness. Ernest Jones and Princess Marie Bonaparte provided a really big portion in the aid in obtaining the out-migration documents. but it was Anna who had to cover with the Nazi bureaucratism and form the practicalities of the family’s out-migration to London. Once back in London. Anna rapidly settled into her new place and began working. “England is so a civilised state. ” she wrote. “and I am of course thankful that we are here. There is no force per unit area of any sort and there is a great trade of infinite and freedom in front. ” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
In early September of 1939 a war broke out and merely a few hebdomads subsequently Anna’s male parent Sigmund Freud passed off. By this clip. Anna had already established a new pattern and was talking about kid psychological science in English. Child analysis was untasted district in the 1920’s and 1930’s’ two of her wise mans in child psychological science. Siegfried Bernfeld and August Aichhorn. both had practical experience of covering with kids. but Melanie Klein had evolved her ain theory and technique of child analysis.
Anna and Melanie had differed in the sense of Melanie’s timing and development of object dealingss and internalized constructions. she “also put the oedipal phase much earlier and so considered the decease thrust to be of cardinal of import in infancy” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) . After Anna’s reaching in London. the struggle between her and Melanie is was split the British Psychoanalytical Society. but was resolved through “a series of war-time “Controversial Discussions” that ended with the formation of parallel preparation classs for the two groups” ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) .
From the 1950’s until her decease. Anna travelled on a regular basis to the United States to talk. Teach. and visit friends. She passed off in the twelvemonth 1982 at the age of 87. ( “Anna Freud – Life. ” n. d. ) All through out Anna’s life she followed in her male parents footsteps ; they ever had a really close relationship. because she was non really near with any other member of her household. Anna aided her male parent with several of his theories. 1 that she helped significantly on was his defence mechanisms. The two were non merely father and girl. they were besides co-workers. ( The Development of Psychoanalytic Theory. ( 2009 ) .
There are several adult females who have greatly impacted the field of psychological science who were theoreticians. innovators. and counsellors. Anna Freud is merely one of the many adult females who have significantly impacted the field of psychological science with her experiments. Anna was a great theoretician who studied kids and defence mechanisms with her male parent. Anna Freud has non merely made a great impact in the field of psychological science. but a great impact on acceptance. which all started in her wartime surveies of British Children. when they were separated from their parents for their safety. ( The Adoption History. 2009 ) .
Anna Freud – Life and Work of Anna Freud. ( n. d. ) . Freud Museum of London.
Retrieved December 16. 2012. from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. Freud. org. uk/education/topic/
The Adoption History Project. ( 2009 ) . Retrieved December 16. 2012. from
hypertext transfer protocol: //darkwing. uoregon. edu/~adoption/people/AnnaFreud. htm The Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory. ( 2009 ) . Mental Illness and its Treatment ( pp.