What Impacts Have Systems of Communication Had Upon the Development of Human Societies Essay

The purpose of this paper is to critically analyze communicating and its development of human societies. It will size up whether any signifier of symbolic behavior was a signifier of communicating. This essay will oppugn some of the findings of the past through the scrutiny of communicative plants such as cave-art. Discussion of urbanism and faith as a agency of communicating with Godhead or supernatural powers will so follow. Writing every bit posited as one of Childe’s ten standards as a cause of urbanism will be critically evaluated. To reason, I will offer my position on the development of human societies holding evaluated the grounds and adept positions. So what is communicating? Communication is derived from the Latin word ‘communis ‘ ( Peters, 1999 ) , intending “to share” . Therefore, communicating is the activity of conveying information through the exchange of messages, information, and ideas, as by signals, visuals, composing or behavior. The history of communicating day of the months back to antediluvian times, address which revolutionized the human communicating was developed some 200,000 old ages ago ; symbols were developed about 30,000 old ages ago while composing about 7,000. Throughout the millenary, human societies underwent major alterations in their societal order where people lived 10,000 old ages ago in little, nomadic groups which depended on wild workss and animate beings. Examples of those groups include but is non limited to those of the Yangzi river vale in East Asia and the Americas which underwent alterations from hunter-gatherers to an organized society. It is these early illustrations of groups which domesticated local works and carnal species to hammer a agriculture community and with the development of agribusiness and sedentism, population growing shortly followed. These farming societies transformed themselves into larger, more complex societal systems characterised by metropoliss, political provinces and category inequalities. As with civilizations such as those of Egyptian and Roman empires, swayers and dynasties rose and fell, and the potsherds and rock tools of archeology made manner for written paperss. Without communicating, the lives of human existences would be really different as it is critical for turning and keeping everything around us. The relationship between communicating and human society is ever-growing holding achieved a immense growing in its partnership. Worlds merely could non hold achieve this sort of development and growing without the being of communicating. Within society, all relationships and societal connexions rely on communicating and appreciate and understand its importance and with changing communicating methods and procedures, it gave a great encouragement to the development of human society. Communication as it is today is a go oning procedure as people strive to develop new and advanced communicating methods and procedures.

To to the full appreciate the growing of communicating, we need to look back to the beginning to

the rock age when communicating was in its initial developmental phases. There were no linguistic communications, resultantly small communicating procedures were followed by worlds. The fleet development of human abilities made manner for the development of communicating and human society. Humans began to utilize marks and non-verbal communicating to pass on with fellow worlds such as smugglers, birds, pointers, fumes. As worlds became more and more organized, different sorts of linguistic communications and communicating methods were developed. Major developments during the Stone Age were:

  • Cave pictures
  • Petro glyphs
  • Pictograms
  • Ideograms

Subsequently, during the Bronze Age, human existences invented composing which revolutionized the communicating methods and procedures, there began a new period of communicating. Accepted illustrations of such Hagiographas are Egyptian hieroglyphs and the Indus Valley book ( Tharoor 2009 ) . By 2700 BC Egyptian authorship had a set of some 22 hieroglyphs to stand for syllables ( Crabben 2011 ) . Some of the outstanding developments of these times are:

  • Writing
  • Alphabet
  • Paper

With the debut of assorted signifier of communicating, is the inquiry whether symbolic behavior is a signifier of communicating? Communication and symbolic links seem to travel manus in manus with characteristics seen as symbolic objects such as stickers, warriors– some transporting arms, axes, wheeled vehicles, houses, farm edifices and farm animal. Other grounds presented is the rock-art of Valcamonica ( Italy ) and Southern Africa in which a figure of symbolic representations were discovered. Southern-Africa in peculiar has cave-art of changing grades of what I would see a signifier of symbolism such illustrations include dancing adult females an assorted geometric signifiers. I believe that symbolic behavior could be considered as a signifier of ocular communicating because a message is being conveyed irrespective of the media and signifier of communicating. Not restricted to cave-art, symbolic behavior is besides seen through the building of objects such as the ‘sky-disk ‘ and ‘sun chariot ‘ . The Nebra sky-disk depicts the Sun, Moon, 32 stars and two discharge, originally three. Its significance alludes any apprehension of its significance, nevertheless, it does non take away from the fact that it is symbolic in nature and may hold been used as an ‘astronomical computation tool to find times of crop ‘ ( Haughton, 2011 ) . Whatever the significance of the disc, it is still one of symbolism. The concluding piece of symbolism lies with the Sun Chariot, similar in its astronomical representation of the Sun and Moon which once more illustrates a signifier of symbolism in the signifier of a bronze-wheeled-model of a Equus caballus drawing a big disc. Not isolated to mere theoretical accounts of bronze, the find of burial patterns and metallurgy to expose prestigiousness and cultural patterns can besides be considered as a signifier of symbolism. Unfortunately, no word picture of the latter patterns are represented in the rock-art, proposing that the presence of cave-art does non to the full represent the full scope of activities, but does non except the really fact that one time once more symbolism is represented through prestigiousness. Symbolism was outstanding on a planetary footing and in Southern Africa, rock-art had symbolic significances to those who created them. The representation of these pictures were linked between the stuff and spirit universe which in bend depicted priest-doctors and the spirit universe. I believe that any consideration into the changing signifiers of symbolic behavior should be seen as a signifier of communicating. In drumhead with respects to symbolism and communicating, I am inclined to back up the thought that symbolism is a signifier of communicating which is reinforced by Childes ‘ standards for urbanism and the rise of civilization coupled with the development of symbolic art ( Perkins, 2013 ) .

Cave or rock-art is known as the oldest signifier of communicating and is the cherished leftover of an ancient manner of life which provides some of the oldest hints of civilizations from long ago. Rock-art and art signifier or pulling manner provides a recorded history of human idea forms and behavior. Penetrations into their socio-religious facets every bit good as their ancient civilization and myths can be gained and turn out valuable into deriving an penetration into their lives. Between 30,000 and 5,000 old ages ago, no written records existed except for cave-art and stone etchings. It was non until post 5,000 old ages that other types of written records came into being. Rock-art is in my sentiment considered a signifier of communicating and message, whether simple or complex, is particular but yet to be to the full understood. It provides a little glance into the socio-religious facets of these ancient neolithic civilizations. A figure of theoretical positions and sentiments have purported to explicate rock-art, but in my position, I am inclined to propose that rock-art merely portrays simple day-to-day life. Another possible theory could be that of conveying a complex message about the priest-doctors ‘ journey and their altered province of consciousness, proposing a true grasp and apprehension of antediluvian tribal life. An air of cautiousness must be placed in presuming that the pictures produced in a specific tribal societal and spiritual context within cave-art has any resemblance to the belief systems of modern Western society and hence should non be gauged to such.

Any signifier of ritualistic, fabulous or supernatural representations art is unfastened to debate as to whether it is art or faith. The country environing art and its nexus to faith would be a hard premise to do as to see the work within a set context is to see the art in the same manner as those who were about during that clip period. As with any spiritual content, the readings are conjectural and subjective based on the translator ‘s ideals. However, the presence of animate beings may hold been more of a symbolic vision of the universe around them. This art could besides be a manner of pass oning possible ‘ritual patterns ‘ ( Zorich, 2011 ) that may hold taken topographic point within the cave systems. There is a possible premise that ritual patterns taking topographic point within the caves were a agencies of communicating with Godhead or supernatural powers. The imagination of animate beings may hold been viewed as sacred due to their physical strength bespeaking power. Throughout clip there have been links with shamanism and stone art within the context of spiritualism. One such illustration is that of the Valcamonica figure which depicts a running adult male ( Naquane, 2014 ) , frequently identified as a priest-doctor. The cardinal contention is that the art is a representation of the existent universe and with that consideration it inquiries its true intent and maps. As with everything else in life, alterations occur, add-ons are made to bing constructions and art work ; similarly with cave art by scratching over already bing work in add-on to go forthing bing engravings entirely, signifies a significance for those adding to the already present art. It is just to surmise that possibly these images may hold had a symbolic or spiritual map which in bend can be accepted as a signifier of pass oning rites and the thought of divinity. To farther back up the theory, Norse stone art is implicative of ritual or fabulous every bit good as associations with the supernatural. I genuinely believe that such readings are acceptable and should be viewed as a manner of looking beyond an established civilization to that of carry oning oneself to a higher power, a divinity possibly? Further grounds has late come to visible radiation of the possible spiritual or religious patterns from the find of rock-art in the Highlandss ( McKenzie, 2014 ) . The find included a bowlder decorated with ancient cup and ring Markss which archeologists believe may hold been made for a figure of grounds. Some of these grounds include ritualistic, astronomical or merely doodling. If we were to presume that it was ritualistic, it implies that there may hold been a nexus with Godhead or supernatural powers. It is a safe premise that with cave-art, a nexus between communicating and the belief of Godhead and supernatural powers exists.

It is without a uncertainty that human communicating is underpinned by a societal endurance jussive mood. In the words of Blakemore, Winston and Frith ( 2004 )

‘Humans crave the company of others and endure deeply if temporarily isolated from society ‘ .

The above statement is declarative of the demand to pass on hence with the spread of hunter-gatherers across assorted parts, communicating took on differing signifiers. These ranged from non-verbal communicating which consisted of possible facial looks, tone of voice, organic structure motion and stance which finally emerged in concurrence with verbal communicating within the hunter-gathers period. It is through the usage of linguistic communication as a symbolic signifier of communicating to convey messages to one another but is non limited to merely the verbal facet of pass oning. As antecedently mentioned, composing, pulling, painting and sculptures was and still is a signifier of communicating, a graphical and yet symbolic method of communicating. One asserts that the hunter-gathers of the clip used assorted methods to pass on from non-verbal to verbal every bit good as art to undertaking and enter their beliefs and life styles.

The earliest signifier of urbanism appeared in the Near East ( 3rdMillennium BC ) , Warka, known from texts as the Sumerian metropolis of Uruk ( Mathews, 2013 ) . Life in the City of Warka was marked by the visual aspect of good known cultural inventions such as the architecture of monumental parts, commemorating art and the usage of a cylinder seal. Another invention which involves one of Childes ‘ 10 standards is that of composing which appeared during the late Uruk period and was considered the earliest signifier of authorship. It can be implied that the presence of authorship was non coinciding but one of relevancy towards the formation of societal administration. I believe that authorship is indispensable in keeping any signifier of administration within a province administration. My statement is that composing as it stands provides a method of record maintaining which is indispensable for non merely the administration but besides the administrative and societal control of people populating within an urban scene. If proven that the authorship found at Uruk was so an built-in portion in urban life so it will be a safe premise that the presence of authorship was in consequence consistent with governmental disposal. However, I dispute this position since other societies have existed without the demand for composing to keep a society. One such society was that of the Incas. Not holding a recognised authorship system like the remainder of the universe, no carven rock, no papyrus or art, the Incas established and maintained a on the job imperium turn outing that urbanism does non necessitate a authorship system to boom. Having said that, the Incas did hold a method of entering histories, astronomical computations and perchance their narratives, this method involved the usage of ‘cords and knots ‘ ( K.K. Hurst, 2002 ) , a complicated system but yet a record, however. Having considered the Incas and the usage of the cord system as a possible agency of conveying messages is in my sentiment unfastened to debate as to whether the usage of knots in cords is a signifier of communicating. Critical analysis of the communicating adopted by the Incas does non supply a convincing statement hence in my sentiment that it is extremely unlikely the Incas possessed a system of composing. When taking into history that for urbanism to be and boom, a system of communicating is required, be it composing or otherwise, the Inca civilization every bit far as I am concerned refutes that theory. Would the Incas have adopted authorship from the people of Warka? Due to the strong beliefs of the Incas and the significance of the cord system, I would presume the Incas would hold refrained from making so.

In reasoning this paper, the true significance of these huge array of cave pictures discovered and perchance some yet to be discovered is and will stay elusive for now. I can reason that the cave-art, some brilliant in comparing to the art work that we find today, reflects the development of ‘symbolic life ‘ , and an of import turning point in human development. This sudden explosion is evocative of the ‘big knock theory ‘ but in this instance it is the ‘big knock theory ‘ of the human head. It is through the survey of the cave-art that has drawn a possible nexus to a symbolic life and with farther field survey and analysis will force the theory and uncover a symbolic life from the yesteryear. I besides believe that communicating and its impact on past civilizations may non hold had a major function to play merely merely a system which was adopted for growing and control. Today, communicating is a demand for any state to win and boom in the manner of trade and finance every bit good as the puting down of Torahs. As we have come to cognize, the consequence of communicating is one of globalisation, take communicating off now and we are left with ignorance and loss of what we have to cognize as portion of mundane life.

( 2532 words )

Mentions

Blakemore, Winston and Frith ( 2004 )Social cognitive neuroscience: where are we heading?Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15120680 ( Accessed 4 March 2014 )

Haughton, B. ( 2011 ) Ancient History Encyclopaedia The Nebra Sky Disc – Ancient Map of the Stars Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ancient.eu.com/article/235/ ( Accessed: 3 March 2014 )

Hurst, K.K. ( 2002 ) About.Com ArchaeologyKnotty ProblemsThe Ancient Writing System of the IncaAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //archaeology.about.com/od/americanancientwriting/a/quipu.htm ( Accessed 4 March 2014 )

Mathews, R ( 2013 )Peopless and complex societies of Ancient south-west AsiaEdited by Scarre, C The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies 3rdEdition London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 440, 443

McKenzie, S BBC ( 2014 ) Rare Neolithic or Bronze Age stone art in Ross-shire [ online ] , Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-26366644 ( Accessed 27 February 2014 )

Perkins, P ( 2013 )A251 World Archaeology Study Guide4ThursdayEdition Milton Keynes: The Open University, p. 34

Peters, JD ( 1999 )Latin roots of CommunicationAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Theory/latin.htm ( Accessed 4 March 2014 )

Scarre, C ( 2013 )Subsequently prehistoric societies in Central and Western EuropeEdited by Scarre, C The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies 3rdEdition London: Thames and Hudson, pp. 420, 424

Tharoor, I. ( 2009 ) Time WorldDecoding the ancient book of the Indus valeAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1919795,00.html ( Accessed 6 March 2014 )

Naquane ( 2014 ) The Open University, Rock art galleryValcamonica running adult maleAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //learn2.open.ac.uk/mod/subpage/view.php? id=342575 ( Accessed 3 March 2014 )

Van Der Crabben, J. ( 2011 ) Ancient History EncyclopaediaAlphabet, DefinitionAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ancient.eu.com/alphabet/ ( Accessed: 6 March 2014 )

World Heritage Convention Rock Drawings in Valcamonica Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //whc.unesco.org/en/list/94 ( Accessed: 3 March 2014 )

Zorich Z. ( 2011 )A Chauvet PrimerAvailable at: hypertext transfer protocol: //archive.archaeology.org/1103/features/werner_herzog_chauvet_cave_primer.html ( Accessed 3 March 2014 )

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