Trust In Advertising Essay


Ad being the most powerful tool of the selling publicity is studied really less under the facet of consumer trust. Hence the current paper tried to happen out the most and least sure advertisement media as a chief aim. Besides the survey tried to place the function of trade name consciousness and trade name trueness in go oning the trust in advertisement.

The survey conducted a quantitative study methodological analysis with 100 participants by utilizing a questionnaire. The survey found that News & A ; Radio are resulted as most sure advertisement media and cyberspace as least sure. Impact of misrepresentation advertisement is besides observed with the group and found that trust can be erased even from the trade name loyal consumers. if they found the attending deceptive. However the survey did non correlate with Neilson’s study consequence in which word of oral cavity is the primary trusted beginning.


Ad is a selling activity to turn the consumer attending towards their merchandise or service. Besides it is a agency of marketing communicating and persuasion. The raising competition in the concern industry makes the Sellerss to follow different ways of advancing their merchandises through advertisement. The competitory concern universe is doing the concern boosters to seek for newer promotional channels and schemes on each and every twenty-four hours.

In a position to advance their merchandises companies sometimes exaggerate the advertizement which is called misrepresentation advertizement. Such sorts of patterns by and large hamper trust. However consumers will maintain different attitudes about the merchandises they buy and the advertizements. The factors that cause the consumer to purchase the merchandise and to swear the advertizements are still a inquiry to the booster in the competitory concern universe. Hence the current paper attempts to place the most sure advertisement media by the consumers.

Research inquiry:which advertisement media is deriving more trust and which one is least sure by the consumers?

Aims of the survey:The survey has the undermentioned aims

  • To place which advertisement media is extremely trusted by consumers
  • To place the relation between trade name consciousness. trade name trueness and the trust in advertizements
  • To place the impact of advanced engineerings like houseman on the trust in advertizements


The advertisement media should run into the following aims to function the intent of booster.

  • It should hold maximal range to many people
  • It should pull the attending of mark group
  • It should be cost effectual

The advertisement media reaches the consumer in two ways:

  1. Direct method of advertisement: Targeting the clients with direct advertisement eg: List mails
  2. Indirect method of advertisement: Reaching the client through a hired service. eg: magazine ads. T. V ads etc. .

Harmonizing to Pavlou and Stewart. 2000 ( qtd. in Haghirian ) modern advertizers are progressively trusting on assorted manners of synergistic engineering to publicize and advance their merchandises and services. Along with traditional ways of advertisement. it is going necessary to follow the latest engineerings like. Internet and Mobile for advertizements. Many services like. going. catering are being promoted along with the payment reminders in e-mail and on nomadic phones.

The different types of media can be understood under the undermentioned categorization:

  1. Print Media: eg: News Paper. Magzines and diaries

This media has the advantage of short lead clip with a range to big audience and intense coverage. This media offers a installation to section the mark consumers by geographics.

However the disadvantages of the media are short life span. hapless reproductivity. less creativeness and losing mark due to headlong reading of the reader.

  1. Broadcast media: eg: Radio and T. V

Mass coverage at the same clip in different geographical locations is the greatest advantage of this media along with repeat. flexibleness in acquiring attending of consumer. Audio and Visual creativeness adds more impact on the mark consumers. This media besides has short lead clip.

Fragmented and inflexible communicating procedure. impermanent nature of message. high cost of publicity. high mortality rate for commercials. deficiency of selectivity. grounds of public misgiving. trouble in aiming the client. dependableness on skilled professions are some of the disadvantages of this media.

  1. On-line Media: Direct mail. group mail. list serves etc. .

This media offers the advantages of both print media and broadcast media through the antic characteristics of online. This media offers flexibleness in making mark audience. with a short lead clip. Intense coverage is possible with an offer of complete information to the consumer. even in flexible and coveted format. This media is flexible plenty to personalise.

However this media has the disadvantages like consumer opposition. high cost and trouble in fixing the mailing lists.

Literature Review

In the similar lines of engineering development the use and popularity of different media is besides taking a displacement from traditional media to innovative and originative media. During the earlier yearss the communicating is largely done through word of oral cavity. Next is the clip for print media to increase the range for information. Then is the coming of broadcast media that carried the information across the states. The public-service corporation of cyberspace increased the possibility of planetary communicating. The context and signifier of advertizement is different from one media to another.

Bauer and Greyser. 1968. ( qtd. in Haghirian & A ; Madlberger ) found a important correlativity between favourable attitudes toward advertisement and respondents’ evaluation of specific advertizements as being raging. sympathetic. gratifying etc. Advertising research has shown that the consequence of advertisement activities are influenced by the attitude towards an advertisement message. the advertisement company or even the applied media. MacKenzie and Lutz. 1989. ( qtd. in Haghirian & A ; Madlberger ) . However the media of advertisement besides has an impact on the consumer trust towards the merchandise or service.

The ultimate end of selling is to bring forth an intense bond between the consumer and the trade name. and the chief ingredient of this bond is trust. Hiscock 2001 p. 1. ( qtd. in Elena Delgado-Ballester ) .

Ad besides determines the client trueness to the trade name. Advertising value is defined as “a subjective rating of the comparative worth or public-service corporation of advertisement to consumers” . Ducoffe. 1995 ; ( p. 1 ) . ( qtd. in Haghirian & A ; Madlberger ) . Such values raise Trust in the consumer towards the advertizement. Peoples perceive advertizements and value them really otherwise.

One common averment is that people with less formal instruction don’t read much and don’t respond to entreaties to ground and tonss of written text. compared to people with more formal instruction. Smith ( qt. in Rick flowers ) . Alternatively they respond to emotion and spectacle. ( Rick Flowers ) . So it can be assumed that people’s trust degrees will be different to different advertizements.

Ad theoreticians have been depicting the critical stimulation characteristics of assorted advertisement media and their content. Rodgers and Thorson. 2000 ( qtd. in Haghirian & A ; Madlberger ) . The Broadcast media through T. V and Radio has much creativeness in its content and presentation than print media. However Internet offers more individualized feeling of the advertizement with the synergistic options like. drama. rematch. choose. stopping point. fell. show etc. . People’s feeling of enjoyment associated with advertizements play the greatest function in accounting for their overall attitudes toward them. Shavitt. Lowrey and Haefner. 1998. ( qtd. in Haghirian & A ; Madlberger ) .

Apart from this. the user needs speedy entree to the information ( s ) he is looking for his/her current content of usage. There is even the possibility that information may be delivered automatically to the consumer. Kaasinen. 2003. ( qtd. in Haghirian & A ; Madlberger ) . Online publicizing offers such entree to detailed information with its hypertext linkage installation.

The “consumer trust in advertising” study reveals that ‘word of oral cavity recommendations’ has gained 251 points against Trust degree Index. The following sure media was Print ads with 194 Trust index degree. Television ads and E-mail subscriptions stood in the following degrees with 173 and 161 index degrees. Direct mail received an index degree of 86 and Pop up ads received the least ranking of 8 against trust degree index. ( Jeffrey D. Jordan ) .

The Nielsen’s study on the most powerful adverting media within 47 states besides found that 78 % trust Recommendations from consumers. The following trust degrees for different advertisement media is as follows: 63 % trust Newspapers. 61 % trust Consumer sentiments posted online. 60 % trust Brand websites. 56 % trust Television.

56 % trust Magazines. 54 % trust Radio. 49 % trust Brand sponsorships. 49 % trust

Electronic mail I signed up for. 38 % trust Ads before films. 34 % Search engine ads. 25 % Online streamer ads. 18 % trust Text ads on nomadic phones. ( Nielsen Online Global Consumer Study April 2007 )

However. consumers like to have some types of advertisement and reject some types of advertisement. More late. an sentiment canvass by Ipsos-Reid ( 2003 ) revealed that a mere 17 % of respondents trusted the advertisement industry. ( qtd. In Peter R. Darke Robin J. B. Ritche ) .

Statisticss besides reveal that “39 % of families view advertisement as mostly false and perversive ; 7 % claim advertizements hold some benefits while non really swearing the advertizement ; 16 % land their belief that advertisement is delusory and harmful to of import societal values” . ( isunshade ) . What could be the factors for such negative sentiment on advertizement which is the most widely used advancing tool?

Pollay ( 1986 ) . ( qtd. In Peter R. Darke Robin J. B. Ritche ) . proposed that exposure to deceptive advertisement can motivate consumers to follow a wide negative position towards further efforts at persuasion

Peter R. Darke Robin J. B. Ritche identified that delusory advertisement engenders distrust. which negatively impacts response to subsequent advertisement from both the same beginning and second-party beginnings.

Harmonizing to InsightExpress ( qtd. In Tobi Elkin ) . a Stamford based on-line market research house. the ‘consumer trust in advertisement has plunged 41 per centum over the past three old ages. and 59 per centum of those polled say they distrust ads ; merely 10 per centums say they really trust ads’ .

For illustration uncomplete comparings. Shimp ( qtd. In Peter R. Darke Robin J. B. Ritche ) which tries to turn out that a merchandise is of high quality without supplying a clear referent of comparing thereby rendering the claim basically nonmeaningful

Another common signifier of misrepresentation involves the usage of implied high quality claims Snyder ( qtd. In Peter R. Darke Robin J. B. Ritche ) . which suggest that the mark trade name is better than rivals without saying this claim straight ( e. g. . no toothpaste battles pits better ) .

“Trust has dropped badly in three old ages ; it’s merely non good. ” says Lee Smith. president of InsightExpress. “There’s nil worse than people experiencing like they’ve been deceived. Consumers believe they’re non being told the full truth. ” ( Quoted in Tobi Elkins ) .

Establishing on the above Literature the survey understands that there is different trust degrees operated with different advertisement media and therefore returns to detect the research inquiry of the survey.

Research Methodology

The current survey adopted Quantitative study method to detect the impact of advertisement on Consumer Trust. Quantitative research is by and large defined as the aggregation of numerical and statistical informations. It is perceived as the scientific attack of research using ‘experimental’ and ‘quasi-experimental’ schemes.

Harvey ( 2002 ) . ( qtd. In Rob O Neil ) . describes quantitative informations as ‘data which can be sorted. classified. measured in a purely “objective” manner – they are capable of being accurately described by a set of regulations or expression or strict processs which so make their definition ( if non ever their reading ) unambiguous and independent of single judgments’ .

The consequences of quantitative research will let the research worker to cognize the discrepancy or correlativities between different dependants and mugwumps of the survey. This type of attack is suited for psychological research undertakings.

Quantitative methods are ideally suited for happening out who. what. when. and where. Day. ( qtd in Rob O Neil ) . Quantitative methods use structured and standardized methods that that give greater objectiveness and truth of consequences. To carry through this. quantitative research will use prescribed processs to guarantee cogency and dependability. However. personal prejudice can be reduced by research workers maintaining a ‘distance’ from take parting topics and using topics unknown to them. This can be practiced by administrating the questionnaires or studies that eliminate the direct intervention of the research worker.

Quantitative methods merely deal with issues known at the beginning of the research undertaking as this is when the inquiries are distinct and documented. McCullough. ( qtd. in Rob O Neil ) . So the current survey gathered the information in the signifier of literature reappraisal on the overview of trust in advertisement and research conducted on the impact of Ad on the trust. With this cognition the survey has framed the study instrument.

Participants:The current survey was conducted with 100 participants ( n=100 ) to garner the sentiment of their trust in advertizements. The survey did a random trying to choose the participants and collected information through a questionnaire.

The participant’s profile was besides collected through the questionnaire.

Materials. Instruments and Measure: The study was conducted with a 5 questioned questionnaire. each inquiry being a most valuable one to the survey.

  1. To happen out reply to the chief inquiry of study- which advertisement media is the most trusted by consumers. inquiry no-1 is framed. The respondents were asked to rank their trust degree against 4 beginnings like News paper and magazines. Television and Radio. Word of oral cavity and Internet. As the earlier literature reappraisal found that Word of oral cavity and Television as the most sure advertisement beginnings. the survey wants to compare those findings with the current research consequences against the approaching media Internet and the traditional media intelligence paper and magazines. Hence the survey asked the respondents to rank their trust degree.
  2. Then the survey tried to corroborate whether trade name consciousness leads to swear or non. As most frequently advertizers highlight company name to acquire the merchandise line recognized as branded. So a inquiry was framed like ‘Do you trust a merchandise merely because you know the company’ .
  1. The earlier literature clearly illustrated that delusory advertisement is cut downing the trust degrees of the consumers towards advertizements and trade name. Besides the survey has acknowledged that old misrepresentation is act uponing to mistrust the newer advertizements. So in order to happen out the trust degrees against delusory advertisement. the survey framed a direct inquiry to arouse the sentiment of consumers on the delusory advertizements. This was placed as 3rdinquiry in the questionnaire and reads like this – “Have you of all time purchased a merchandise or service after watching a convincing ad and after you bought it. after you realized the ad was exaggerated and non real” .
  2. In order to happen out the trade name trueness in relation to swearing and advertizement. a inquiry was framed as. “A company that you trust publishes an ad that you don’t like. will you look for a substitute” ?
  3. With ballyhoo traveling on sing Internet gross revenues and on-line advertizements. the survey tried to happen out the trust degrees of consumers on online advertizements. A inquiry like- ‘With the advanced engineering like Internet. are you able to swear advertizements more? ’ will connote to detect the sentiment of consumer over the advanced media like online and Mobile than the traditional advertisement media.

Procedure: The participants were handed over the questionnaire and asked to make full out them there it self. The filled in questionnaires were collected by manus and the responses were collected on to the response sheet. to come in the information into excel sheet for storage intent. Then the consequences were analyzed to construe he findings of the survey.


The survey found observed the undermentioned consequences which are analyzed against each inquiry.

  1. Highest & A ; Least Trusted Advertising Media:

The survey found that airing media through Television & A ; Radio are the most sure advertisement media with 65 % trust index degree. Internet has gained the position as least sure media News Paper & A ; Magazines are the 2nd most sure media for 20 % of consumers. Word of oral cavity has gained less trust with merely 10 % degree of credence.

  1. Trust through Brand Awareness:

80 % of the consumers expressed that they can swear the advertisement by cognizing the company. However 20 % of the respondents expressed that they can non swear the advertisement merely by cognizing the company.

  1. Trust after sing a misrepresentation advertisement:

The consequences show that 80 % can non swear the advertisement or the company one time they have received a merchandise which is non in line with the advertizement. Merely 20 % of the consumers expressed that misrepresentation advertisement has no impact on their re purchase from the company.

  1. Shift in merchandise after improbable Ad:

76 % of the consumers expressed that they would look for a replacement. if they found improbable advertizement from a trusted company.

  1. Internet as a agency to heighten the trust in advertisement:

80 % of the expressed that Internet and the advanced engineerings enhances their trust in advertisement.


The benefits and value of merchandise or services will be informed to the consumer through advertisement. However during this communicating procedure. taking a right media of communicating is a critical factor that determines the success of advertisement run. The survey observed different consequences from the earlier researches like Neilson by happening out Television & A ; Radio as most sure advertisement media. And the survey found that cyberspace is the least sure advertisement media.

The survey met 2nd nonsubjective by happening out that trade name consciousness has influence on swearing the advertizement. But misrepresentation advertisement encourages distrust in advertisement company and switch the trade name trueness.

Finally the survey observed that most of the consumers expressed that cyberspace enhances their trust degrees in advertisement.


Though the survey could happen out which publicizing media is most sure and which one is least sure. the range of the paper has non included the grounds for trust. Besides the survey found that delusory advertisement is the cause of misgiving. but it could non straight reply the ground for swearing the advertizement. The study instrument is non supported with the inquiries to derive the replies on concluding for the trust. Hence it is recommended that a farther probe into the grounds for swearing the advertisement media would add more cognition in understanding the consumer behavior for advertizements.

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