Transition Elements And Coordination Compounds Biology Essay

As we know, Manganese is found in the first row of passage metal with the negatron constellation [ Ar ] 3d5 4s2. Besides that, Manganese has different type of oxidization provinces when it appears as a compound and the oxidization province is from Mn ( -III ) until Mn ( VII ) . So, we know that the compounds of manganese scope in the oxidization figure have a different of 10 negatrons. In the experiment 1, we prepare tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) , Mn ( acac ) 3 by utilizing manganese ( II ) chloride tetrahydrate and K permanganate act as oxidization agent to oxidize manganese ( II ) chloride to acetylacetonemanganese ( III ) .

Manganese ( III ) acetylacetonate is an one- negatron oxidizer. Manganese ( III ) acetylacetonate

is high spin. It has besides a deformed octahedral construction. This deformation is due to the Jahn-Teller consequence. ( Absolute Astronomy, 2009 ) . The construction of Manganese ( III ) acetylacetonate is shown as below: –

( Beginning: Tcieurope.com )

The equation is as follow: –

MnCl2 + 4H2O Mn ( H2O ) 4Cl2

Mn ( H2O ) 4 ] Cl + 2HC5H7O2 + NaC2H3O2 Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2 + NaCl + HC2H2O2

4Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2 + KMnO4 + 7HC5H7O2 + HC2H3O2 5Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 3 + KC2H3O2 + 4H2O

Furthermore, Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) is besides known as Vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO ( acac ) 2. As we know, it is a bluish green composite. Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) has a vanadyl group, VO2+ . The vanadyl group is bonded to 2 acetylacetonate anions and the construction of the compound is as follow: –

This complex can be made from V ( IV ) or V ( V ) . In our experiment, Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) was prepared from V ( V ) oxide and the equation is as follow: –

V2O5 + 2H2SO4 + EtOH 2VOSO4 + 3H2O + CH3CHO

VOSO4 + 2HC5H7O2 + Na2CO3 VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2 + Na2So4 + H2O + CO2

( Absolute Astronomy, 2009 )

Besides that, both of the acetylacetonato ( acac ) groups of Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) are able to be exchanged with organic ligands holding organizing atoms of different potencies. ( Maurya, 2003 )

Both Manganese ( III ) acetylacetonate and Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) are bond with acetylacetonate which known as ligand. The precursor for acetylacetonate is acetylacetone with expression C­5H8O2. However, acetylacetonate is an anion. It can adhere to matching cation but it really hard to be as a free ion in solution.

In add-on, Cobalt is a difficult, grey metal. It has a proton figure 27. Besided that, there are two types of Co ions viz. Co2+ and Co3+ . First, Co3+ ion is more weaker than the Co2+ ion. However, the complex ion formed with higher oxidization province is more stable. ( & A ; deg ; zmir Institute of Technology, n.d. ) . So that, Cobalt ( III ) composites are kinetically inert.

Co3+ can undergo a procedure known as ligand exchange reactions easy which compared to Co2+ composites. The Co ( III ) composites are normally in octahedral form. In the experiment, chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride is being synthesized. The construction is as follow: –

( Beginning: Chemicalbook.com )

The composite is prepared by the oxidization of ammoniacal solution of Co ( II ) salts by utilizing H peroxide. The expression is as follow: –

Co2+ + NH4+ + 1/2H202 > [ Co ( NH3 ) 5H20 ] 3+

[ Co ( NH3 ) 5H20 ] 3+ + 3Cl- > [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2 + H20

( & A ; deg ; zmir Institute of Technology, n.d. )

Materials and Methods:

Experiment one

5g of MnCl2.4H20

1.3g of NaC2H3O2.3H2O NaC2H3O2.3H2O

Dissolved in 200cm3 of distilled H2O.

21cm3 of 2HC5H7O2 easy added

1g of KMnO4

Present of two-phase bed

Solution A added in with stirring

Dissolved in 50cm3 of distilled H2O.

13g of NaC2H3O2.3H2O

Solution B added in

Solution A

Solution B

Dissolved in 50cm3 of distilled H2O.

Heated with 60oC for 30 proceedingss

Complex washed with propanone

Solid composite filtered by suction

Attendant solution was cooled with ice-cold H2O

Experiment 2

Experiment 3

Recrystallise

Consequences:

For experiment 1,

from the equation below, I can acquire the theoretical mass of the Mn ( acac ) 3 solid complex by:

Mn ( H2O ) 4 ] Cl + 2HC5H7O2 + NaC2H3O2 Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2 + NaCl + HC2H2O2

4Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2 + KMnO4 + 7HC5H7O2 + HC2H3O2 5Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 3 + KC2H3O2 + 4H2O

From the equation, we know that 1 mol of Mn ( H2O ) 4 ] Cl = 1 mol of Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2.

So, 5 g of Mn ( H2O ) 4 ] Cl = 0.0308 mol is besides = 0.0308 mol of Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2.

From the 2nd equation, 4 mol of Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2 = 5 mol of Mn ( acac ) 3

0.0308 mol of Mn ( C5H7O2 ) 2 = 0.0385 mol. Of Mn ( acac ) 3

So, theoretical weight of Mn ( acac ) 3 = 0.0385 mol X 252.938 g/mol

theoretical weight of Mn ( acac ) 3 = 9.7381 g

The followers shows the method to acquire our experimental weight:

Weight of Sample tubing

14. 8180 g

Weight of Sample tube + solid composite, Mn ( acac ) 3

18.7785 g

So, the experimental weight of Mn ( acac ) 3complexes were 3.9605 g

Percentage output of Mn ( acac ) 3complexes we get was = 3.9605 g / 9.7381 g X 100 %

= 40.67 %

Following, Magnetic minute of Mn ( acac ) 3complexes were calculated as follow:

thousand = 0.9278g- 0.8193g

= 0.1085g

Ro= -33

L = 2.4cm

R= 1165 ( paramagnetic )

CBal = 1

Ten ( g ) = [ CBal X L X ( R-Ro ) ] / 109 X m

Ten ( g ) of Mn ( acac ) 3complexes = 2.65 X 10-5

So, Mn ( acac ) 3complexes are paramagnetic

FTIR

Interpretation of IR spectrum for composites will be written in treatment.

For experiment 2,

from the equation below, I can acquire the theoretical mass of the [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2 solid composite by:

Co2+ + NH4+ + 1/2H202 > [ Co ( NH3 ) 5H20 ] 3+

[ Co ( NH3 ) 5H20 ] 3+ + 3Cl- > [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2 + H20

From the above equation, 1 mol of Co2+ = 1 mol of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5H2O ] 3+

12g of Co2+ = 0.0504 mol

So 0.0504 mol of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5H20 ] 3+= 0.0504 mol of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2

Theoretical weight of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2 solid composites = 0.0504 mol X 250.433 g/mol

= 12.6218 g

The followers shows the method to acquire our experimental weight:

Weight of Sample tubing

14. 9285 g

Weight of Sample tube + solid composite,

22.3723 g

So, the experimental weight of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2 solid composites = 7.4438 g

Percentage output of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2complexes = 7.4438 g / 12.6218 g X 100 %

= 58.98 %

Following, Magnetic minute of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2complexes were calculated as follow:

thousand = 0.9264g- 0.8207g

= 0.1057g

Ro= -36

L = 2.1cm

R= -41 ( dimagnetic )

CBal = 1

Ten ( g ) = [ CBal X L X ( R-Ro ) ] / 109 X m

Ten ( g ) of [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2complexes = -9.9338 X 10-8

So, [ Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2complexes are diamagnetic

FTIR

For experiment 3,

from the equation below, I can acquire the theoretical mass of the [ Vo ( acac ) 2 ( H2O ) ] solid complex by:

V2O5 + 2H2SO4 + EtOH 2VOSO4 + 3H2O + CH3CHO

VOSO4 + 2HC5H7O2 + Na2CO3 VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2 + Na2So4 + H2O + CO2

From the above equation, 1 mol of V2O5 = 2 mol of VOSO4

2g 0f V2O5 = 0.011 mol = 0.022 mol of VOSO4

2 mol of VOSO4 = 2 mol of VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2

Theoretical weight of VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2= 0.022 mol X 264.94 g/mol

= 5.8287 g

The followers shows the method to acquire our experimental weight:

Weight of Sample tubing

14.8445 g

Weight of Sample tube + solid composite,

18.5818 g

So, the experimental weight of VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2= 3.7373 g

Percentage output of VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2= 3.7373 g / 5.8287 g X 100 %

= 64.12 %

Following, Magnetic minute of impure VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2 composites were calculated as follow:

m = 0.8880g – 0.8244 g

= 0.0636g

Ro= -34

L = 2.5cm

R= 72 ( paramagnetic )

CBal = 1

Ten ( g ) = [ CBal X L X ( R-Ro ) ] / 109 X m

Ten ( g ) of impure VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2complexes = 4.17 X 10-6

So, VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2complexes are paramagnetic

Magnetic minute of pure VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2 composites were calculated as follow:

m = 0.8947g -0.8211

= 0.0736g

Ro= -33

L = 2.3cm

R= 144 ( paramagnetic )

CBal = 1

Ten ( g ) of pure VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2complexes = 5.53 X 10-6

FTIR

Interpretation of IR spectrum for composites will be written in treatment.

Impure VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2

Pure VO ( C5H7O2 ) 2

Discussion:

Interpretation of IR spectrum for tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) :

Wavenumber ( cm-1 )

Description of sets

2921.1 – 2959.7

-relative strength: weak

CH stretching of CH3

1593.9

1508.0

-relative strength: strong

– ( C=C ) stretching

– ( C=CH ) distortion

1387.2

-relative strength: strong

– ( CH3 ) – symmetric C-H distortion

1253.5

-relative strength: strong

– ( C=C ) stretching

– ( C-CH3 ) stretching

1016.8

-relative strength: strong

– ( CH3 ) out-of plane bending

923.2

-relative strength: strong

– ( C-CH3 ) stretching

777.0

-relative strength: strong

– ( C-H ) distortion

678.1

-relative strength: medium/ strong

– ( C-CH3 ) stretching, ( O=C-CH3 ) distortion

– ( Mn-O ) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond

460.1

– relation strength: weak

– ( C=C ) stretching, ( C-CH3 ) stretching

– ( Mn-O ) stretching that besides indicatesmetal-ligand bond

Interpretation of IR spectrum for chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride:

Wavenumber ( cm-1 )

Description of sets

3258.0

-relative strength: strong

NH3stretch

1576.2

-relative strength: medium

-degenerate asymmetric NH3stretching

1307.8

-relative strength: strong

-symmetric NH3angle distortion

844.9

-relative strength: strong

-NH3rocking

487.6

– ( Co-Cl ) stretching indicates metal-ligand bond

Interpretation of IR spectrum for impure Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) :

Wavenumber ( cm-1 )

Description of sets

1556.8

1521.0

-relative strength: medium

– ( C=O ) stretching

– ( C=C ) , ( C=CH ) stretching

1418.7

-relative strength: medium

– ( CH3 ) distortion

1374.0

1357.6

-relative strength: strong

– ( C=O ) stretching

– ( CH3 ) distortion manner

1286.6

-relative strength: strong

– ( C=C=C ) stretching

998.2

-relative strength: strong and crisp

-stretching of V=O bond

-it besides indicates the metal-ligand bond.

1018.6

-relative strength: strong

– ( CH3 ) swaying

936.1

-relative strength: strong

– ( C-CH3 ) stretching

– ( C=O ) stretching

798.6

-relative strength: medium

– ( C-H ) out-of-plane bending

685.9

657.2

-relative strength: medium/ weak

– ( pealing ) distortion

– out-of-plane bending for:

609.2

– ( pealing ) distortion

Interpretation of IR spectrum for pure Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) :

Wavenumber ( cm-1 )

Description of sets

1563.0

1520.0

-relative strength: medium

– ( C=O ) stretching

– ( C=C ) , ( C=CH ) stretching

1499.6

-relative strength: medium

– ( CH3 ) distortion

1380.0

1349.0

-relative strength: strong

– ( C=O ) stretching

– ( CH3 ) distortion manner

1288.3

-relative strength: strong

– ( C=C=C ) stretching

995.0

-relative strength: strong and crisp

-stretching of V=O bond

-it besides indicates the metal-ligand bond.

1018.2

-relative strength: strong

– ( CH3 ) swaying

935.7

-relative strength: strong

– ( C-CH3 ) stretching

– ( C=O ) stretching

798.8

798.0

-relative strength: medium

– ( C-H ) out-of-plane bending

686.0

-relative strength: medium/ weak

– ( pealing ) distortion

– out-of-plane bending for:

609.7

– ( pealing ) distortion

FTIR is known as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. This FTIR can be used to place different types of chemical bond which is either organic compound or inorganic compound. So no two different compounds will hold same spectrum. However, FTIR may do destructive to our sample comparison to magnetic susceptibleness which is non-destructive. Besides that, magnetic susceptibleness can be group by paramagnetic, diamagnetic and ferromagnetic. Paramagnetic substance is those attracted by strong magnetic field but those repelled by magnetic field are diamagnetic substances.

Besides that, we can besides corroborate the form by utilizing magnetic susceptibleness. The Cobalt ion to organize Chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride has 6 negatron in 500 orbital. Harmonizing to crystal field theory, if the composite is in octahedral form, the negatron can be arranged like below: –

Low-spin high-spin

eg eg

t2g t2g

If the composite is in tetrahedral form, the negatron are arranged as below: –

t2g

eg

Magnetic Susceptibility for chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride is -9.9338 X 10-8 and it is diamagnetic. Merely the low-spin octahedral form shows diamagnetic belongingss, so the form of chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride is octahedral.

Furthermore, for tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) , the Mn3+ ion has 4 negatron in 500 orbital, and the agreement in octahedral form will as follows: –

Low-spin High-spin

eg eg

t2g t2g

For the agreement in tetrahedral form, the negatrons are arranged as below: –

t2g

eg

Magnetic Susceptibility for tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) is 2.65 Ten 10-5 and it is paramagnetic. So the form of tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) is octahedral. However we can non find whether is low-spin or high-spin in this state of affairs because we are non ciphering the coupling energy for the composite.

In add-on, there is merely one negatron in 500 orbital for vanadium ion of Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) . Magnetic susceptibleness for it is 4.17 Ten 10-6 and it is paramagnetic. The form is octahedral and the agreement of negatron is as follow: –

eg

t2g

Acetylacetonate is delocalized and formed resonance construction as follow:

The construction of Co ( NH3 ) 5Cl ] Cl2 is as follow:

The construction of [ VO ( ACAC ) 2 ] is as follow:

Furthermore, oxovanadium composites act as insulin mimetics, nucleolytic and anticancer.

To acknowledge insulin- mimetic composites, a simple and fast in-vitro check is developed. Besides that, an accurate appraisal of the cells taken up of glucose, in-vitro check with Ehrlich can be used. The oxovanadium composites can split DNA without the nowadays of H peroxide. Then, its nucleolytic efficiency is besides greater but it is affected by the pick of buffer and pH. The oxovanadium composite is besides an anticancer agent against human ovarian malignant neoplastic disease.

Actually, I have acquired a batch of new cognition among these three experiments. First, experiment one and two are easier to transport out compared to experiment three. This is because experiment one and two involved oxidization which Mn2+ was oxidized to Mn3+ ; Co2+ was oxidized to Co3+ . Whereas experiment 3 involved decrease which reduced VO5+ to VO4+ . At the beginning of each experiments, we heated up the sample in unfastened air. It is easier to oxidise the compound than cut down the compound in the presence of O. So, we need more clip to heated the V2O5.

During the first clip of experiment three, I failed to acquire a bluish colour solid pulverization. This is because I heated the sample in the unfastened air and I failed to command the warmer. So, after the filtration procedure, I got a white solid pulverization. Therefore, I learnt from the error and during the 2nd clip I used reflux method. This clip I can command the warming procedure good. The ethyl alcohol was non evaporated much. After filtration, I got rather a batch of bluish solid pulverization. So, I knew that, for decrease procedure, we can non heat the sample excessively rapidly and heat excessively long. If we heated excessively long, most of the merchandise will vaporize.

Following, from the FTIR spectrum, I can detect that the spectrum from the first and 3rd experiment are rather similar. This is because, the extremum from the spectrum are largely from the acetylacetonato ( acac ) . However, spectrum from experiment two is rather different from other experiment because largely the extremums come from Cl compared to other experiments.

The per centum output of the composites from all the three experiment that I have calculate out was non so high. This is possibly due to the lavation of the merchandise with propanone, some of the merchandise was dissolved and washed off. However, there are other factors which cause job to our consequences. First, most of the warming home base we used can non work good. I changed many heating home base during the experiment. Following, we have kept our half manner done sample for more than 7 yearss. The consequences may non be so accurate anymore. Another factor possibly due to the volume and sum of the sample and other stuff we measure are non accurate. Our merchandise may incorporate some drosss.

However, some of the safeguard was taken during the experiment. In these experiments, some of the chemical was caustic and toxicant such as concentrated HCl and H2SO4. So, we poured the chemical carefully in the fume board. Next, before utilizing any instrument, we read through the manual to understand the stairss to work the magnetic susceptibleness balance. We besides taken down some of import stairss to work the FTIR spectrophotometer. I have asked some aid from lab helper on where to acquire the stuff for experiment.

Decision:

The per centum output for tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) is 40.67 % , chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride is 58.98 % and ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) is 64.12 % .

For tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) , the extremum for two Mn-O bond are at the part about 678.1 cm-1 and 458.3 cm-1. For chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride, the extremum for Co-N bond is at 669.2 cm-1 while Co-Cl bond is at 486.2 cm-1. For Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) , the extremum for V=O bond is at 997.4 cm-1 part.

Magnetic Susceptibility for tris ( acetylacetonato ) Mn ( III ) is 2.65 ten 10-5 and it is paramagnetic. Besides, Magnetic Susceptibility for chloropentaamminecobalt ( III ) chloride is -9.93x 10-8 and is diamagnetic. For Bi ( acetylacetonato ) oxovanadium ( IV ) , magnetic susceptibleness for impure composite and pure composite are 4.17X 10-6 and 5.53X 10-6 severally. They are paramagnetic.