A social anthropology major pupil Essay

Night at the Museum

Hi, my name is Roi Tristan. I am a societal anthropology major pupil. Since I am a kid, I love to research new things and I am funny about many things in this universe. I besides love sing to different museums because in these topographic points I can see different artefacts, dodos and other historical objects. Last weekend, I went to the Museum of Natural History. It is one of the best known museums in the universe. I got lose inside the museum, so I was at that place for the whole dark because I do non cognize where to go out. And so as I was walking to happen the issue, I saw this restricted room in the museum. Due to my wonder, I entered this restricted room. I was so aghast what I witnessed inside the room! I saw dodo remains ofHomo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens neanderthalensisandHomosexual sapiens sapiens. What was truly flooring is that all these dodo remains were alive that dark! I got a opportunity to speak to them. I learned a batch from them. Make you desire to cognize what we have talked that dark? Let me state you what they have told me. All of them talk about their geographical location, physical features or their morphology and their societal behaviour ( who are they/how they lived ) .

Homo ergaster

Hello, my name isHomo ergasterwhich means “work man” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) and my life is really controversial. I was discovered in Africa and some paleoanthropologists named me asHomo ergasterwhile other paleoanthropologists called meHomo erectus( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ).There is a confusion on what name should be reference to me. In order for you to understand where this confusion is coming from, allow me state you a short history.

I, being East African dodo remains, was different from the other dodo remains found in Asia particularly Java and China because we, “African specimens are non as strongly buttressed in the braincase and do non hold such thick cranial castanetss as seen in Asiatic representatives ofHomo erectus” ( Jurmain, et.al. , 2003: 300 ) . Wood ( 1991 as cited in Jurmain, et.al. , 2003 ) said that Bernard Wood is the responsible for proposing my name to stand for African remains andHomo erectusfor Asiatic remains. Some of my alone characteristics include “larger brow ridges ; a longitudinal ridge, called a sagittal keel, running along the top of the skull in some persons ; and a horizontal ridge at the dorsum of the skull called the occipital torus” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000:410 ) .

Homo erectus

We,Homo erectus,were found in many topographic points. In Asia, we were found in Java, Indonesia and China ( Poirier, 1987 ; Jurmain, et.al. , 2003 ; Nelson, 1988 ) . In Africa, we were found in Lake Turkana, Olduvai Gorge, Ethiopia and Tanzania ( Poirier, 1987 ; Jurmain, et.al. , 2003 ; Nelson, 1988 ) . Last, we were besides found in Europe particularly in Heidelberg, Vertesszollos, Petralona, Bilzingsleben and Arago ( Nelson, 1988 ) . However, in these topographic points, people merely found some of our skeletal remains, non the whole organic structure of skeleton. Are you funny why we were found in many topographic points? Well, fundamentally that is because we became a universe travellers and the ground why we travel is because there is a alteration in clime and even geographic alterations ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) .

Are you funny where we got our name? Our original name isPithecanthropus erectus( raise missing link ) , and this was given by Eugene Dubois, a Dutch doctor who discovered the first dodos of Homo erectus in 1891 in Java, Indonesia ( Poirier, 1987 ) . Let me depict to you what do we look like. We have similarity to modern adult male ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) like holding a vestibular ( interior ear ) system ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) . We have “a cranial capacity of 750 to 1,250 centimeter3” ( Jurmain, et. al. , 2003: 288 ) . Our “face is characterized by big forehead ridges above the oculus orbits ; the nasal castanetss are wide and level and the face more prognathous than in modernHomosexual” ( Poirier, 1987:193 ) .

The last thing that I can portion to you is how we lived during our times and our societal behaviour. We are much known for the Acheulian tool tradition and the basic tool kit include “a various scope of cutting, at scraping, piercing, chopping, and buffeting tools used to fix carnal and works materials” ( Poirier, 1987:212 ) . Our rock tool was called biface which has a flatter nucleus ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) and has a length runing from 15 centimeter to 30 centimeter ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) . Some types of biface were manus ax, “shaped like a teardrop and has a crisp point at the narrow end” , chopper which is a “lozenge-shaped biface with a level, crisp border on one terminal, while a choice is a thicker, more triangular biface” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000:417 ) . We besides built shelters in order to protect ourselves from the air current, which were made from huts ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) . For Boyd and Silk ( 2000 ) , they said that we likely controlled fire because there were remains of fire associated with us in some site and can you conceive of how we survived the cold conditions unless we knew how to utilize fire. And there is no verification if we were a big-game huntsman, nevertheless there were groundss that we relied on meat ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) .

Homosexual sapiens neanderthalensis

AfterHomo erectusshared their narrative, it is my clip now to state my narrative, to state who we areHomosexual sapiens neanderhtalensis. LikeHomo erectus, we were found in many topographic points. Some of our dodo remains were found in France and Spain, Central Europe, Western Asia particularly in Israel and Iraq, Uzbekistan in Central Asia ( Jurmain, et.al, 2003 ) . We derived our name from the Neander Valley near Dusseldorf, Germany in 1856 ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) . Let me besides describe ourselves to you. We “had big encephalons ; had more rounded braincase thanHomo erectus; had large faces ; had little back dentition and big, to a great extent worn front dentition ; and had robust, to a great extent muscled bodies” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000:439-440 ) . Do you believe we were non really different from you, worlds? Well, we were non really different from you, modern worlds ( Constable, 1973 ) .

Homo erectushold their ain rock tools as stated earlier. We,Homosexual sapiens neanderthalensis,hold besides our ain rock tool tradition. Our tool doing method was called Mousterian which were made from rock flakes where “each flake was struck off a rock nucleus, which itself was trimmed in progress so that the face of the flake was in consequence predetermined’ ( Constable, 1972: 42 ) . Open sites, caves and sway shelters- these are topographic points where we lived ( Jurmain, et.al, 2003 ) .

So, allow us cognize talk about our civilization and behaviour in order to understand more about us. There were some fossilised castanetss of animate beings that were found in our campfires which include caribou, Equus caballuss, ibex, elephants, mooses, bears, woolly rhinoceros and even mammoth ( Constable, 1972 ) . As ascertained, these are large mammals or animate beings. The usage of certain pin downing devices like booby traps was probably used by us ( Poirier, 1987 ) . This proves we,Homosexual sapiens neanderthalensis,were successful huntsmans ( Jurmain, et.al, 2003 ) . However, even though there is much grounds that we hunt animate beings, it does non intend our diet is merely meat. We besides eat berries, nuts and other sorts of workss ( Jurmain, et.al, 2003 ) . But when it comes to vesture, worlds assumed that we worn dressing in order to last the stop deading conditions during our times, even though there is no clear grounds about our stitching equipment ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) . And as stated a piece ago that there is no great difference between you and I, our behaviour is really much interesting. Many were amazed by my narrative about our entombment of the dead because we are the 1s who foremost did a morgue patterns ( Poirier, 1987 ) . On the other side of my narrative of entombment, it is non clear if these were done for spiritual intents or it was done merely to dispose the organic structures of otherHomosexual sapiens neanderthalensisbecause there are some arguments for some anthropologists who made readings in our burial sites ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) . What is of import about us is that we cared ( Constable, 1972 ) .

Homosexual sapiens sapiens

I am the last narrative Teller among the four of us. I am the 1s who will finish the narrative. Like the narratives of others, our skeletal remains were found in many topographic points particularly in Africa, Israel, Central Europe, Western Europe, China and Australia ( Jurmain, et.al, 2003 ) . You can detect that we, together withHomo ergaster, Homo erectusandHomosexual sapiens neanderthalensiscan be found in many topographic points around the Earth. We do non populate in merely one topographic point. Our characteristics include the undermentioned: “small faces with stick outing mentum ; rounded skull and less robust postcranial skeleton” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000: 452, 454 ) . And besides like them, our name has its ain beginning and significance.Homosexual sapiens sapienscan besides be called anatomically modern worlds ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) .Homo erectussaid a piece ago that they have similarity to modern human andHomosexual sapiens neanderthalensisbesides claimed that they are non really different to worlds. Do you cognize why we were called as anatomically modern worlds? It is because the difference between us and worlds is that our societal behaviour, cultural traditions and engineerings were non complex and progress compared to worlds ; but when it comes to physical or organic structures, we show great similarity to the organic structures of modern worlds ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) .

As I said, our societal behaviour, cultural traditions and engineerings were non the same to yours, worlds. So I will state our lives. We were big-game huntsmans and our “offensive arms included lances, javelins, harpoons, nines, rock missiles, bows and pointers, and throwing sticks or throwing sticks” ( Poirier, 1987:262-263 ) . IfHomo erectusandHomosexual sapiens neanderthalensishold Acheulian and Mousterian tool tradition severally, we have our ain besides. Actually we have many standardized tool and these are: Aurignacian and “is characterized by certain types of big blades, burins and bone points” and was replaced by Gravettian “in which little, parallel-sided blades predominated, and bone points were replaced by bone awls” followed by Solutrean “with its beautiful leaf-shaped points” and in conclusion followed by Magdalenian “a tool kit dominated by carven, decorated bone and antler points” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000:458-459 ) . In order for us to hold a incorporate relationship to each other, we formulated the construct of coupling and affinity regulations but unhappily we still had high mortality rates even though we all have these sorts of engineerings and relationship ( Poirier, 1987 ) .

We had constructs of life after decease that is why we buried person who died in our group together with some tools, decorations and we performed some rites ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) . I will give some trifle to you. Make you cognize that our art makes us alone as compared to the other hominids ( Boyd and Silk, 2000 ) ? Some of our humanistic disciplines include cave wall art ( animate beings ) , the carnal carvings of our tools and manus tools and even sculpturing of female statuettes which is besides known as Venus ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988 ) . Are you funny where do we acquire those pigments? Well, we “used natural substances that included ruddy and xanthous ocher, Fe oxides, and manganese to make a assortment of colourss for paint” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000:461 ) . When it comes to vesture, there were many groundss like residues in vesture in Gravess and bone acerate leafs that can be used to back up the thought that we used tailored vesture ( Jurmain, et.al, 2003 ) . Boyd and Silk ( 2000 ) said that we besides “adorned ourselves with beads, necklaces, pendents, and watchbands, and may hold decorated our vesture with beads” ( Boyd and Silk, 2000:461 ) . You can truly see our difference to the other hominid.

The Connection of four Homos to each other

As I listened to their narratives, I can non wipe out the fact that I was amazed by their life narrative and at the same clip, confusion on my portion. The development of adult male is one of the many enigmas that we have in our universe. Although all of them had told me about their lives, but I think there is still a missing nexus. Possibly one ground for me is the sum of dodos that were discovered because merely partial of the whole skeletal remains were discovered. I askedHomosexual sapiens sapiensif he evolved fromHomosexual sapiens neanderthalensis, askedHomosexual sapiens neanderthalensisif he evolved fromHomo erectusaskedHomo erectusif he evolved fromHomo ergaster.And I got two replies from all of them, a yes and a no.

There is a hypothesis called H. erectus-sapiens, it is a “straight-line evolutionary strategy:Hydrogen.erectusto Neandertal toH. sapiens sapiens” ( Nelson and Jurmain, 1988:549 ) . However, there are some paleoanthropologists that do non believe in this hypothesis. Harmonizing to Poirier ( 1987 ) , there are some people like Louis Leakey ( 1966 ) , Andrews ( 1984 ) and Stinger ( 1984 ) that do non believe in this straight-line evolutionary strategy. He said that one of them “suggests that human development bypassedH. erectusin Asia” ( Poirier, 1987:216 ) . For me, after cognizing all these things, I still do non cognize where to believe and how to construe the readings of others. However, I do believe that these four Homosexuals are of import in order to understand development.

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