The Concepts Acculturation And Ethnicity Anthropology Essay

The constructs Acculturation and ethnicity are frequently used by the research worker to depict ingestion experiences of cultural minority consumers. This paper presents a reappraisal of the relationship between cultural procedure, specifically what has been termed Acculturation, and how it helps to understand consumer behaviour of cultural minority consumers. Consumer Acculturation is a socialisation procedure in which an immigrant, or marginalizes consumer learns the behaviour, attitude and values of a civilization that are different from those of their civilization of beginning ( Lee 1998 ) .

Cultural groups are “ … .. any group which is defined or set off by race, faith, or national beginning, or some combination of these classs, ” ( Gordon, 1964, p. 27 ) . Historically Acculturation has been chiefly shown as a one-way procedure where the microculture adopts the dominant civilization ‘s norms without matching influences. This paper looks for explicate the impact of socialization on consumer purchase determinations of cultural minority group and how it helps to understand consumer behaviour of cultural minority group.

Minority cultural audience in all over the universe represents a important cultural and consumer force. Increasing cultural and cultural diversity- like other signifiers of societal alteration – represents both a menace and an chance to sellers. New consumer section can supply fresh beginnings of top-line growing with focussed new merchandise development to the seller. And for that manufacturer has to be cognizant of the cultural alteration among the cultural minority consumer.

Acculturation provides a qualitative overview of how cultural differences of the larger minority cultural communities affect their consumer behaviour. Redfield, Linton and Herskovits ( 1936, p. 149 ) ) define socialization as “ … … those phenomena which result when group of persons holding different civilizations come into uninterrupted first-hand contact, with subsequent alteration in the organisational civilization forms of either or both groups ” .

Under this definition, socialization is to be distinguished from culture-change, of which it is but one facet, and assimilation, which is at times a stage of socialization. Acculturation is a procedure of following the believes and behaviour of one civilization group by another cultural group. The way of version can be a minority group following wonts and linguistic communication forms of the dominant group, and can be other way- that is, the dominant group besides adopt forms typical of the minority group.

The alterations may take topographic point in dominant civilization, the subculture or both groups, harmonizing to Berry ( 1977 ) ; in pattern Acculturation tends to bring forth more significant alteration in one of the groups. Assimilation of one civilization group into another may be grounds by alterations in linguistic communication penchant, acceptance of common attitude and values, rank in common societal groups, and loss of the separate political or cultural individuality. Many research workers have used the term socialization and assimilation interchangeably, or in some instance, the significance has overlapped ( Gordon 1964 ) .

To ass to the confusion, different subjects use the footings to intend different constructs ( Berry and Annis 1974 ; Padilla 1980 ) . For illustration, sociologists like Gordon ( 1964 ) , typically use the term “ assimilation ” to depict brushs between cultural groups and the cultural dialogue procedure to happen common land. In contrast anthropologists prefer the term “ socialization ” to depict the same cultural dialogue procedure ( Gordon 1964 ) . A reappraisal of the consumer socialization literature reveals a similar incompatibility.

Therefore, it is of import to relay the prevailing difference between assimilation and socialization in footings of their use in the consumer socialization context and the following result of the cultural dialogues. While assimilation occurs when an immigrant to the full adopts mainstream values and gives up their cultural heritage, socialization can happen when some elements of the mainstream civilization and added without abandoning the native civilization ( Berry 1980 ; Padilla 1980 ; Wallendorf and Reilly 1983 ; Jun, Ball et al 1993 ; Rossman 1994 ) .

Consumer Acculturation is a subset of socialization and socialisation. While socialization is more general, consumer socialization is specific to the ingestion procedure. Consumer socialization can be seen as a socialisation procedure in which an immigrant consumer learns the behaviours, attitude and values of a civilization that are different from their civilization of beginning ( Lee 1988 ) . Webster ( 1994 ) views cultural individuality as a subset of socialization and assimilation as a manner of socialization.

In the Webster ‘s survey, cultural designation is operationalised by finding which linguistic communication is used in the place. Webster believes the combination of the cultural designation and self-identification gaining controls assimilation dimensions. Laroche, Kim and Tomiuk ( 1998 ) province that the primary different between the two concepts is that cultural individuality steps focus on maintenance/retention of the civilization of beginning and socialization steps focus on acquisition of the host civilization. Although closely related, ethnicity and cultural individuality are two separate concepts.

Ethnicity is an nonsubjective description and refers to a group with common national or spiritual background. In contrast, cultural individuality is more subjective ( Cohen 1978 ; Hirschman 1981 ; Minor 1992 ) and is a self-designation which relays a individuals committedness and strength of association to a peculiar group ( Zaff, Blount, Philips and Cohen 2002 ; Chung and Fischer 1999 ) . The construct of socialization refers to a procedure or alteration. Cultural individuality , on the other manus, refers to a position, which may or may non be statics.

Thus the strength of cultural individuality may act upon the degree of socialization as suggested by Penazola and Gilly ( 1999 ) and others. The contrasts of the cultural individuality and socialization are neither parallel nor opposite of each other ; instead they influence and shape each other. Measures of socialization typically attempt to find the extent which a individual has adopted to a new civilization ( Magana et al 1996 ) and the ensuing behavioural alterations that occurs a consequence of the contact ( Ward and Arzu 1999 ) .

There has been a great trade of fluctuation in the measuring of socialization and ethnicity in both the societal scientific discipline and the consumer behaviour literature. Some factors, either separately or in combinations, that have been considered in the measuring are linguistic communication, mention groups, exogamy, individuality, civilization ( Laroche, Kim and Tomiuk 1998 ; Lee and Um 1992 ) , and faith ( Hirschman 1981 ) . Communication based steps = , such as media use, have besides been used ( O ‘ Guinn and Faber 1985 ; Kim, Laroche et Al. 1990 ) .