Prehistoric Japanese Architecture Essay

Prehistoric Nipponese Architecture

Today, it is easy to see and appreciate Japan’s technologically advanced civilization and the manner it is reflected in modern architecture. Although much of what is considered to be traditional Nipponese architecture was adopted from other Asiatic civilizations ; more traditional edifices owe their building to inventions made in prehistoric architecture. Nipponese pre-history is divided into three periods, the first two—Jomon and Yayoi—named after clayware, and the third—Kofun—named after funeral hills. Throughout these periods, Nipponese architecture was characterized by its usage of wood due to climatic conditions that guarantee an abundant supply of wood, which regrows rapidly ; and topographic conditions that mean frequent temblors, and which make the usage of rock masonry unsuitable. The flexibleness of wood and its ability to defy temblors make it a more lasting stuff in these fortunes. Practical characteristics that were simple in nature developed great significance as Nipponese architecture evolved with strong influences from China and Korea.

The Jomon period which starts from between 1400 BCE and 1000 BCE and ended about 300 BCE was named after cord Markss engraved on wet clayware. Pottery found in the Kyushu from this period and idea to hold been made by adult females is the oldest recorded in the universe. At this clip, Japan was still connected to Asia via land Bridgess, merely after Waterss rose were these span obliterated and reach brought to an terminal. During the earliest portion of this period, people lived in little surface houses and Nipponese society was a alone mix of semi-sedentary hunter-gatherers. Archaeological remains from the Early Jomon period show that people lived in little small towns in big square-shaped cavity houses, with grass roofs. There is grounds of heavy rock tools, and of belowground depot cavities for nuts. By the in-between Jomon period, people lived in larger communities in complex cavity houses with rock floors. Evidence besides exists of burial rites from shell hills found from this period. During the late Jomon period, as temperatures fell and populations moved from the mountains to the coastal parts, contact between Japan and Korea began once more on the island of Kyushu with rice, bronze, and Fe introduced.

The Yayoi period, from 300 BCE to 300 CE, is named after the country in Tokyo where the first clayware remains from this period were discovered. This period saw a pronounced addition in interaction between Japan and its neighbours. The oldest ascertained Yayoi site is Yoshinogari in Kyushu, where bronze mirrors have been found from China. Jade from China and bronzy stickers from Korea have besides been found in burial sites. Increased societal stratification is shown by the reserve of particular subdivisions in burial evidences for an elite during this period. Raised floor edifices dating from this period have been found in Yoshinogari including watchtowers and garners. Granaries were constructed on top of wooden poles to protect shops from H2O and plagues, and besides meaning the importance of the edifice to the community. This comparatively refractory period saw frequent contending between kins, and colonies were built on hills and surrounded by fosses. Nevertheless, certain Jomon traditions still remained, for illustration, common people continued to populate in cavity houses.

The Kofun period, from 250 CE to 538 CE, is named after burial hills dating back to 300 CE built in the form of a keyhole. [ a- ] These are some of the largest burial hills found in the universe. [ a- ] These hills provide farther grounds for increased contact with China and Korea, including the visual aspect of terracotta figures in grave. [ a- ] Writing, Buddhism, and new methods of doing ceramics were besides brought to Japan during this period. Subsequent periods would be characterized by Chinese and Korean influences, with the wealthiest members of society, including the emperor, seeking to construct castles and houses constructed based on Chinese Korean theoretical accounts, and poorer occupants brooding in wooden Minka houses. [ a- ]

P1 – 1. Harmonizing to paragraph 1, which of the followers was a characteristic of prehistoric Nipponese architecture from 1400 BCE to 538 CE?

& lt ; QT2 Fact & gt ; D

a. raised houses

b. Buddhist influences

c. rock

d. wood

P1 – 2. The word “ { invention } ” in the transition is closest in significance to

& lt ; QT3.vocab & gt ; C

a. sweetening

b. penalty

c. promotion

d. hurt

P1 – 3. Which of the sentences below best expresses the indispensable information in the highlighted sentence in the transition? { Throughout these periods, Nipponese architecture was characterized by its usage of wood due to climatic conditions that guarantee an abundant supply of wood, which regrows rapidly ; and topographic conditions that mean frequent temblors, and which make the usage of rock masonry unsuitable. } Incorrect picks change the significance in of import ways or go forth out indispensable information.

& lt ; Sentence Simplification & gt ; D

a. The early, in-between, and late JA?mon periods all had drastically different climes, ensuing in different structural demands.

b. Prehistoric Nipponese building favored wood over rock.

c. The Jomon, Yayoi, and Kofun periods used big sums of wood in building.

d. Environmental factors meant that wood was preponderantly used in building alternatively of rock.

P2 – 4. Harmonizing to paragraph 2, which of the undermentioned best describes the Jomon clayware found in the Omori shell-mound near Tokyo?

& lt ; QT2. Fact & gt ; B

a. They were abandoned when people moved from the mountains due to worsening temperatures.

B. They were an of import portion of ceremonial and burial rites.

c. They were the first known pots created anyplace in the universe.

d. They were acquired through trade with adjacent states.

P2 – 5. Harmonizing to paragraph 2, why were Nipponese people described as semi-sedentary during the Neolithic period?

& lt ; illation & gt ; B

a. merely work forces went out to run and garner nutrient while adult females remained at place

b. although people lived in fixed colonies people survived by a assemblage nuts and runing

c. a big migration was made from the mountains to the coastal parts in the center of the period

d. frequent combat by opposing folks meant that warfare was common

P2 – 6. Why does the writer provide the information that “During the late Jomon period, as temperatures fell and populations moved from the mountains to the coastal parts, contact between Japan and Korea began once more on the island of Kyushu with rice, bronze, and Fe introduced.” ?

& lt ; QT5.Rhetorical intent & gt ; B

a. To propose that the Japanese faced a major climatic catastrophe during the Jomon period.

B. To bespeak how life in the late Jomon period basically changed prior to the Yayoi period.

c. To back up the thought that Japan was undergoing a passage to an agricultural society.

d. To supply illustrations of factors that contributed to architectural promotion in the Jomon period.

P2 – 7. The word “ { rites } ” in the transition is closest in significance to

& lt ; QT3.vocab & gt ; D

a. manners

b. heritages

c. wonts

d. imposts

P3 – 8. The word “ { however } ” in the transition is closest in significance to

& lt ; QT3.vocab & gt ; B

a. in any instance

b. in malice of this

c. notwithstanding

d. ne’er head

P3 – 9. Harmonizing to paragraph 3, what was true of Nipponese architecture during the Yayoi period from 300 BCE to 300 CE?

& lt ; QT6. Fact & gt ; A

a. It was constructed based on practical grounds such as plagues and extra H2O.

B. It was luxuriant in design and amply furnished with luxuriant clayware.

c. It was highly crude despite a considerable addition in outside influences.

d. It was non really lasting due to frequent temblors and natural catastrophes.

P5 – 10. What intent does paragraph 4 service in the larger treatment of Nipponese architecture?

& lt ; QT5.Rhetorical intent & gt ; C

a. To stress how long it took for Nipponese architecture to germinate into the architecture we see today

B. To reason that Nipponese architecture was non influenced by neighbouring states

c. To compare how Nipponese architecture changed during the Kofun period with old epochs

d. To depict how Nipponese began to build more edifices for funeral ceremonials

P4 – 11. Harmonizing to paragraph 4, all of the followers is NOT mentioned in paragraph 4 as an influences from China and Korea on new manners of building during the Kofun period, EXCEPT?

& lt ; QT2 Negative & gt ; D

a. societal position

b. Shintoism

c. wealth

d. design

P6 – 12. The word “ { brooding } ” in the transition is closest in intending to & lt ; QT3.vocab & gt ; C

a. settling

b. agriculture

c. inhabiting

d. building

P6 – 13. Look at the four squares [ a- ] that indicate where the undermentioned sentence could be added to the transition. & lt ; QT7.insertion & gt ; 2nd

Kofun ranged from over 400m to merely a few metres long, with the largest holding been attributed to Emperor Nintoku.

14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief sum-up of the transition is provided below. Complete the drumhead by choosing the THREE reply picks that express the most of import thoughts in the transition. Some sentences do non belong in the sum-up because they express thoughts that are non presented in the transition or are minor thoughts in the transition. This inquiry is deserving 2 points. & lt ; QT8.summary & gt ; A, B, D

Drag your reply picks to the infinites where they belong. To take an reply pick, chink on it. To reexamine the transition, click VIEW TEXT.

Nipponese prehistoric architecture was shaped by foreign influence, every bit good as the simpleness of earlier Neolithic epochs.

Answer Choices

a. Prehistoric Nipponese architecture chiefly used wood due to its flexibleness and widespread handiness on the Nipponese Islands.

B. The Jomon period was alone in that although the Nipponese people were hunter-gathers, they lived in cavity houses grouped in little small towns.

c. Temperatures fell during the late Jomon period doing a population clang and encouraging contact with adjacent states.

d. Architecture in the Yayoi and Kofun periods was characterized by increased exchange with adjacent states and showed grounds of increasing societal hierarchies.

e. The oldest ascertained Yayoi site is in Tokyo, this site provides records of contact with adjacent states including jade from China and bronzy stickers from Korea.

( degree Fahrenheit ) Architecture in Kofun period was characterized by its raised building to protect against H2O and plagues.