Atherosclerosis is the “ furring ” or hardening of the coronary arterias and is the chief cause of bosom disease, Foster ( 2003 ) . Smith ( 2000 ) on the other manus describes it as a narrowing of the arterias that can impact them in any portion of the organic structure which can take to stroke, hapless circulation in the legs every bit good as bosom onslaughts.
It develops bit by bit over many old ages and is due to a physique up of cholesterin, Ca and unnatural cells. This in bend signifiers atheroma, which are fatty sedimentations in the wall of the arteria, Bird ( 1996 ) .The most frequent locations are the cardiac part, taking to 20 % of deceases and the intellectual part with 15 % of deceases. It besides affects five times and four times as many work forces as adult females severally. Amziev ( 1995 )
The hazard of developing coronary artery disease is largely determined by the degree of cholesterin in the blood stream which can depend on dietry or familial factors, Smith ( 2000 ) . Smith besides stated that as cholesterin degrees have close dietry links coronary artery disease is more common in Western states and so location is a hazard factor. He added that Diabetes Mellitus can besides do high cholesterin degrees irrespective of diet along with some familial lipid upsets.
Other recognised factors which increase the hazard of coronary artery disease that ca n’t be changed are heredity. Up to day of the month figures show that this increases the opportunities but is this strictly due to household cistrons or is it more down to a shared life style of households such as deficiency of exercising, hapless diet, smoke and so on. Gender seems to be a factor as stated before work forces are at higher hazard than adult females. There is the climacteric in adult females and this could be due to the ceasation of oestrogen secernments which are natural defenders of the arteria walls. Again this could be linked to the last factor of age as the sedimentations take clip to construct up and so will show subsequently in life. Amziev ( 1995 ) .
Hazard factors that can be changed include deficiency of regular exercising leting fats to construct up. Smoking causes hardening of the arterias so diminishing their flexibleness and in bend allows more build up on the walls of the arterias, Foster ( 2003 ) . He goes on to state that inordinate intoxicant ingestion can take to an addition in blood force per unit area which is the most common consequence of coronary artery disease. Blood force per unit area rises when the arterias narrow and snap is lost as they can no longer adjust quickly or to the full to each bosom round.
Bing over weight which consequences from a hapless diet and/or deficiency of exercising if a contributory factor and it has been found to be peculiarly so if this weight is carried around the waist. If two or more hazard factors occur in one individual it is more likely the person will develop coronary artery disease, Amziev ( 1995 ) .
The alterations brought about from enduring from this status will be those of a alteration of life manner. Changing diets and exercising wonts, giving up smoke and cut downing intoxicant ingestion will assist forestall or detain the oncoming if there are no lending factors that can non be changed every bit good.
Section 3 Respiratory system
1 ) What is the map of the Respiratory System?
The respiratory system is made up of upper and lower subdivisions. The upper respiratory system comprises of the nose and naval pit, the throat, voice box and windpipe. The lower is made up of the lungs, bronchial tube and bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles and air sacs, Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) .
The respiratory system along with the circulatory system delivers oxygen to the lungs and so on to the cells and removes carbon dioxide from the cells back to the lungs for halitus. Every cell needs a changeless supply of O and to acquire rid of C dioxide. Respiration is indispensable to let most cells to map and is the exchange of O and C dioxide between air, blood and organic structure tissues, Smith ( 2000 ) .
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2 ) How and where does gaseous exchange occur? Maximal 150 words
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) explain that gaseous exchange takes topographic point continuously at the respiratory membrane and in tissues. Gould ( 2006 ) states it involves the diffusion of O and C dioxide and depends on different force per unit areas happening between for illustration, atmosphere and blood and flows from high force per unit area to low force per unit area countries.
Internal respiration takes topographic point at a cellular degree where O enters and C dioxide leaves it. The gases diffuse into the blood watercourse. Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) defines external respiration as between the lungs and the environment while Gould defines it as the flow of gases between the alveolar air and blood in the pneumonic circulation.
Each gas diffuses harmonizing to it ‘s ain partial force per unit area gradient known as Daltons Law. As air comprises of O, C dioxide, N and H2O and is ne’er wholly expired, the concentrations of gases are different in the ambiance, blood and lungs and so differences in force per unit area allows uninterrupted exchange.
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The undermentioned subdivision concerns respiratory measurings. Use the picks below to fit with the statements.
A. Dead infinite volume
B. Expiratory modesty volume
C. Inspiratory modesty volume
D. Residual volume
E. Tidal volume
F. Vital capacity
You will non necessitate to utilize all of the above picks
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 )
Respiratory volume inhaled or exhaled during normal external respiration
McMorran, J. , Crowther, D. , McMorran, S. , Prince, C. , Youngmin, S. , Pleat, J. and Wacogne, I. ( 2009 )
Air in the respiratory passages that does non lend to gaseous exchange
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 )
Entire sum of exchangeable air
McMorran et Al ( 2009 )
Gas volume that allows gas exchange to travel on continuously
McMorran et Al ( 2009 )
Sum of air that can still be exhaled forcibly after a normal halitus
4 ) Describe the pathology of asthma
Defined really merely at Asthma UK ( 2009 ) , asthma is an inflammatory disease of the air passages.
They province that it is really hard to state for certain what causes it but that they know that people are more likely to develop asthma if there is a household history and combined with environmental factors influences whether a individual will endure from it.
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood ( 2008 ) , studied across 155 Centres in 56 states with half a million kids and found great disparities across the universe with a tendency toward higher incidences in developed and westernised states. The survey suggests other influences such as familial, societal and environmental hazard factors. Symptoms were found to be most prevailing in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Ireland ( up to 20 % ) and lowest ( 2-3 % ) in Eastern Europe, Indonesia, Greece and India.
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) suggest that the non-specific factors that may do asthma are cold air, coffin nail smoke, air pollution, upper respiratory piece of land infection, emotional emphasis and strenuous exercising. Asthma UK ( 2009 ) expand on this by including the influences of smoking in-utero and inactive smoke. They besides include modern life style which includes lodging, diet and a more hygienic environment as factors that may hold contributed to the recent rise excessively.
There could be an eternal list of causes because asthma can be triggered by anything that irritates the air passages to do the symptoms.
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) put asthma into two classs and these are atopic which is childhood oncoming and extrinsic, and non- atopic, i.e grownup oncoming and intrinsic. The nature and the symptoms are the same and treated in the same manner. Gould ( 2006 ) states that it can farther be catagorised as ague, i.e a individual episode or Chronic which is a long term status. Recently there has been a clinical graduated table developed runing from mild and intermittent to severe and relentless.
Asthma UK ( 2009 ) describes asthma as the tightening of the musculuss around the walls of the air passages doing them to contract and inflames and swells the liner. Sometimes gluey mucose and emotionlessness builds up to do farther narrowing.
Asthma Conditions ( 2008 ) advise that symptoms present themselves in many ways including a dark clip cough, shortness of breath, a tight feeling in the thorax, sometimes wheezing and tachycardia. In terrible onslaughts there can be clear in pulling of the country between the ribs and above the breastbone and collarbones.
Smith ( 2000 ) besides lists trouble in expiring, a dry persistent cough, feelings of terror, perspiration and a blueness to the lips, lingua, fingers and toes due to the deficiency of O which in bend can take to exhaustion, confusion and coma. NHS Direct ( 2009 ) explain that if left untreated an onslaught can take to decease.
The alterations a individual may necessitate to do due to enduring from asthma tend to be to their life style and taking prescribed medicine. It is indispensable to place and so bound or extinguish personal triggers, Asthma Conditions ( 2008 ) .
Following a healthy diet and maintaining good hydrated, with regular medical reappraisals can besides be good, Asthma UK ( 2009 ) .
1, List the constituents of the nephritic system and their map
The nephritic system consists of all the variety meats involved in the formation and release of urine harmonizing to virtualmedicalcentre.com ( 2008 ) . Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) depict it of consisting of kidneys and Ureters the vesica and the urethra.
By and large there are two kidneys and ureters, but we do non necessitate two to last. It may merely be that development has seen an advantage to holding a spare, National Kidney federation ( 2009 ) .
The kidneys are bean molded variety meats and are situated merely below the ribcage. They remove extra H2O, salts and wastes of protein metamorphosis from the blood while returning foods and chemicals to the blood, Moore, Dally and Agur ( 2006 ) . Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) , merely term this as releasing piss and add that most of the filtrate is reabsorbed with merely 1 % excreted as piss. Each kidney contains the Hilus through which the ureters are connected. Blood vass and lymphatic vass are besides connected at the hilum with the blood come ining through the nephritic arteria, Tuberose.com ( 2009 ) . It is besides stated here that the chief map is non excretion but ordinance as the chief procedure as mentioned above trades with filtration.
The Ureters are muscular tubings that take piss from the kidneys to the vesica, Drake, Vogl and Mitchell ( 2010 ) . The musculuss allow for peristaltic motion, Waugh and Grant ( 2006 ) . Each ureter is about 30cm long Pentz ( 2003 ) . As urine goes on to be collected in the vesica so raising the force per unit area, the ureters become tight and the gaps near to forestall urine reflux, Waugh and Grant ( 2006 ) .
Harmonizing to the McMorran et Al ( 2009 ) , the vesica is the storage organ for urine collected from the kidneys by the ureter before elimination via the urethra. The normal capacity is about 300-400 milliliter as more than this stimulates the demand to urinate. In work forces the capacity can be up to twice every bit much due to a much stronger sphincter musculus.
Drake et Al ( 2010 ) specify the Urethra as the canal running from the cervix of the vesica to an gap in the perineum and carries piss when urinating. The urethra varies in length in males and females with those in the female being about 4cm and in work forces being about 20cm. The external gap is guarded by the external urethral sphincter which is under voluntary control Waugh and Grant ( 2006 ) . It could be argued that the control can be lessened and hence non as voluntary if there is harm to the pelvic floor which weakens the musculus, Smith ( 2000 ) .
In work forces the urethra which travels through the phallus besides carries seeds. This enters the urethra from the ejaculatory canal and urine enters from the vesica, Waugh and Grant ( 2006 ) .
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2, List the common marks and symptoms of a urinary piece of land infection
Hackett ( 2009 ) states that a urinary piece of land infection ( UTI ) is defined as the presence of multiplying beings in the piece of land through which urine flows from the kidneys via the vesica to the outside universe. It is more common in adult females than work forces, likely due to the shorter length and wider diameter of the female urethra, Gould ( 2006 ) . This is because most infections are go uping, arising from beings in the perineal country.
Cystitis is the most common UTI and if left untreated can distribute upwards to do ureteritis or even pyelonephritis of the kidneys which may even take to kidney harm, Waugh and Grant ( 2006 )
In cystitis the urethra and vesica wall become inflamed, ruddy and conceited and perchance even cankerous. NHS Choices ( 2009 ) lists the symptoms as including hurting, combustion or cutting esthesiss when urinating, a frequent or pressing demand to urinate but merely so go throughing little sums. Other symptoms listed include dark, cloudy or strong smelling piss which may even incorporate hints of blood, pain straight above the pubic bone, lower back or abdominal hurting and eventually a feeling of being ailing, weak or hectic. Gould ( 2006 ) besides includes an addition in the demand for dark clip micturition.
Ureteritis seldom occurs entirely Schilling ( 2009 ) , and so the symptoms will be really similar to those of cystitis. There are some anatomical abnormalcies that can give rise to recurrent infections happening and so the causes can change widely.
Pyelonephritis may impact either one or both kidneys and involves the nephritic pelvic girdle and medullary tissue, Gould ( 2006 ) . Vordik ( 2008 ) states that the symptoms once more include those of cystitis but may be more marked, particularly every bit far as back and abdominal hurting is concerned. There may besides be fatigue, higher febrility and perchance even mental alterations doing confusion. Confusion is a typical symptom in aged where no other symptoms may show themselves externally. He goes on to name alterations to the tegument which may go warm and moist.
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3. Label this endovenous pylogram 3
1 Renal Papilla
2 Major Calyx
P Renal pelvic girdle
Moore et Al ( 2006 )
Homeostasis and the hormone system
1.Explain what is meant by the term homeostasis, 50 words
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) , province that homeostasis literally means “ unchanging ” but in pattern it describes a dynamic, ever-changing state of affairs within narrow bounds.
Collins ( 1987 ) , defines it as the care of metabolic equilibrium within an animate being by a inclination to counterbalance for interrupting alterations.
2. Diabetes is an illustration of a homeostatic instability which involves the hormone system.
Describe the pathology of Type 2 Diabetess
Type 2 Diabetes, harmonizing to Diabetes.co.uk is a common metabolic upset and was one time known as adult-onset diabetes but has now been found to happen in immature grownups and kids. Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) say it is non-insulin dependant and is the type of diabetes that histories for 90 % of all instances. NHS Choices ( 2009 ) , puts this every bit high as 95 % .
NHS Choices ( 2009 ) say that type 2 diabetes is caused by the organic structure non bring forthing adequate insulin or non utilizing what it produces efficaciously. Normal blood sugar is regulated by insulin which helps take glucose from blood to the cells to be used for energy. If diabetes is present the insulin is either non produced plenty or there is opposition so the organic structure can non utilize the glucose.
Dlife ( 2008 ) , argue that the causes are non to the full understood but that there is a strong familial nexus. They say that there is a 10-15 % greater hazard of developing the disease if a parent or sibling already suffers. They besides cite an inactive life style and hapless diet perchance moving as a trigger if there is besides a strong familial factor. Other possible causes are chronic emphasis, low birth weight with the associated foetal undernourishment and cistron mutants. They list Ethnicity with African/ American, Asian/American, Latino/American, a history of gestational diabetes, high blood pressure with blood force per unit area over 140/90mm mercuries, a hapless cholesterin profile and being older as increasing the hazards of developing diabetes.
Diabetes.co.uk ( 2009 ) list the symptoms as bleary vision, cuts or sores that take a long clip to mend, rubing tegument or barm infections, inordinate thirst, dry oral cavity, frequent micturition and leg hurting. DLife ( 2008 ) add utmost hungriness, unexplained weight loss, weariness and feeling run down, rapid external respiration, concerns, temper swings and urinary piece of land infections.
There are many alterations to do in life style in order to get by with diabetes. Doctors will order medicine which may get down with tablets but advancement to insulin, in order to take down blood glucose degrees, Healthtalkonline.org ( 2009 ) . Manzella, ( 2009 ) continues to province that the patient will be asked to supervise their blood glucose degrees several times a twenty-four hours to enter how their organic structure responds to the medicines, nutrient and exercising. Understanding this will assist in future nutrient picks, activity degrees and which medicines are best suited.
The A1c trial will be performed every 2-3 months and will find the general tendency of blood sugar degrees.
Nutrition is of import as there is a high incidence of diabetes in the corpulent, so weight loss and a healthy balanced diet would be recommended along with regular exercising. Exercise has a direct affect on the blood sugar degrees. A patient will necessitate to cognize how to pull off in an exigency if hypoglycemia, which is low blood sugar degree, or diabetic diabetic acidosis, i.e high blood sugar degree occur. Warning marks must be reacted upon as either extreme can take to coma or even decease. Manzella ( 2009 ) .
The chief action that a patient can take is to go educated in the disease to take the best control that they can.
Briefly describe the 2 chief maps of the digestive piece of land
The digestive system is concerned with the consumption, dislocation and soaking up of nutrient substances for the usage and storage by organic structure cells Bird ( 1996 ) . It comprises the oral cavity, throat, gorge, little bowel, tummy, big bowel, rectum and anal canal, Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) .
Digestion can be physical or chemical. The physical portion is the chew in the oral cavity, that is masticating, vermiculation by the muscular action of the tummy and the enteric walls and this reduces the size of the nutrient whilst traveling it through the piece of land, Bird ( 1996 ) .
Bird ( 1996 ) goes on to state that the chemical action of digestion includes enzymes, which allows chemical alterations to take topographic point so enabling the simplified compounds to be absorbed through the liners of the variety meats particularly the ileum of the little bowel. This is where most nutrient substances are absorbed.
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2 ) Identify the diseased conditions described below.
Not all the replies will be used.
Inflammation of the abdominal serous membrane
Condition ensuing from the reflux of acidic stomachic juice into the gorge
Normally indicates liver jobs or obstruction of the bilious canals
An eroding of the tummy or duodenal musosa
Passage of watery stools
Causes terrible epigastric hurting ; associated with drawn-out storage of gall in the saddle sore vesica
Inability to go through fecal matters ‘ frequently as a consequence of hapless intestine wonts
Gould ( 2006 )
Label the Barium clyster
1 Caecum. e-radiology.com ( 1996 )
2 Ascending colon, e-radiology.com ( 1996 )
3 Transverse Colon, e-radiology ( 1996 )
4 Fundus, e-radiology ( 1996 )
5 Sigmoid colon, Gould ( 2006 )
6 Liver, Waugh and Grant ( 2008 )
7 Stomach, Waugh and Grant ( 2008 )
1. Describe the healing procedure for breaks
( 250 words upper limit )
Fractures, harmonizing to Bird ( 1996 ) are a interruption in the continuity of the castanetss including clefts every bit good as interruptions.
Bone is invariably absorbing and replacing the cells that make it and so healing is natural, Cluett, ( 2004 ) .
Johnston, ( 1996 ) describes the healing procedure in four phases. Inflammation caused by shed blooding from the injured bone and environing tissue.Stage two is “ soft callosity ” . Stage three is “ difficult callosity ” and present four is “ bone remodeling ” .
He besides states that mending times vary tremendously for each individual depending on age, wellness, the type of the break and the bone involved.
Brown ( 2009 ) expands on this depicting the redness phase as a blood coagulum organizing to clean the wound country. Repair cells fill the break which so become bone-forming cells for new bone tissue and chondroblasts for new gristle. Over the following 2-3 months osteoclast cells dissolve and recycle bone dust.
Browns 2nd phase incorporates 2 and 3 of J. e. johnstons, begins about two hebdomads after the break occurs. Here, proteins produced by the bone-forming cells and chondroblasts begin to unify into a soft callosity which so hardens into a difficult callosity with the bone weaving together over a 6- to 12-week clip period.
Her concluding phase is the reconstructing stage and is where the callosity begins to maturate and reconstruct itself. Woven bone becomes stronger lamellar bone by both osteoblast bone formation cells and osteoclast bone reabsorption cells.
She adds that nutrition can play a large function in the healing procedure whilst smoke may impede it.
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The marks and symptoms of osteoporosis 5 Markss
Raisz ( 2008 ) describes osteoporosis as a progressive metabolic bone disease that decreases the bone denseness with impairment of the bone construction. Drake et Al ( 2010 ) depict it as the bone mineral denseness being significantly reduced.
NHS Choices ( 2009 ) explain that as osteoporosis develops over several old ages, symptoms tend non to be obvious in the early phases. Early warning marks, when they do occur, can include joint strivings and holding trouble sitting or standing consecutive. Due to the cutting of the castanetss a break after a minor autumn, impact or even a sneezing or a cough may be a cardinal index.
Gould ( 2006 ) , states that compaction breaks of the vertebrae happens and this displays itself in back hurting due to coerce on the nervousnesss. Kyphosis and scoliosis, which are unnatural curvatures of the spinal column, are indexs to the spinal alterations due to osteoporosis. She besides states that the healing of the breaks is slow.
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) cite the most common castanetss to endure from breaks due to osteoporosis are the cervix of thighbone, carpuss and vertebrae.
The causes and hazard factors for osteoporosis 5 Markss
The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, Abpi ( 2009 ) show that there are many listed causes and hazard factors for osteoporosis, merely some of which are within a patients control. They say that the most “ at hazard ” group are adult females come ining or merely through the climacteric and particularly so if this happened early, i.e. before 45.
Raisz ( 2008 ) , lists many causes including being thin, deficient dietetic consumption of Ca, Phosphorous, and vitamin D which is more likely to do bone loss, as does a, high-protein diet. Because emphasis, including weight bearing, is necessary for bone growing, immobilisation or extended sedentary periods consequence in bone loss. Cigarette smoke and inordinate caffeine or intoxicant usage besides adversely affect bone mass. White persons and Asians are at higher hazard. A household history of osteoporosis besides increases hazard. Other hazard factors ( eg, diminishing sums of sex endocrines ) predispose to specific types of osteoporosis. Patients who have had one breakability break are at increased hazard of holding others.
Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) include the following farther hazard factors of being female and increasing age. Other factors may include utilizing corticoids or diseases such as Cushings syndrome, hyperparathyroidism, Type 1 diabetes mellitus, arthritic arthritis, chronic nephritic failure, chronic liver disease, anorexia nervosa and certain malignant neoplastic diseases.
1, What is a force per unit area sore? ( Maximal 100 words )
Pressure sores are besides known as decubitus ulcers or pressure sores are countries of damaged or broken tegument and tissue, Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) . They add that without intervention they can go deep lesions that take a long clip to mend. British Medical Journal Group ( 2009 ) . Gould ( 2006 ) states that the countries affected appear ruddy and so superficial dislocation is apparent taking to ulceration and the coloring material may go purple ruddy if the harm is deep. Finally deeper tissue is destroyed and a big unfastened country develops. Local infection is besides common.
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2, How do force per unit area sores occur? ( Maximal 100 words )
Pressure sores occur by tegument interruption down which happens easy when the circulation is impaired, Gould ( 2006 ) . Blood supply is reduced at force per unit area points where the tegument is compressed for long periods between bony countries and a difficult surface, e.g bed or chair, Waugh and Grant ( 2008 ) . Due to the deficiency of blood to these countries decease of the tissue cells occurs, taking to ulceration, Gould ( 2006 ) . Gould besides lists unequal hypodermic tissue in the aged, centripetal damage, mechanical annoyance such as clash, inordinate wet from sweat or piss, hapless personal hygiene and unequal nutrition or hydration.