The term silicon oxide is otherwise known as Si dioxide or vitreous silica. Silicon dioxide is a substance which occurs of course in the Earth and it consists 12 per centum of the Earth crust. Since the handiness of silicon oxide is known from several old ages it is most often found in the nature as crystal vitreous silica. As we know silicon dioxide have divergent belongingss it has been used in different Fieldss. Silicate spectacless and ceramics are produced from many stuffs but silicon oxide is the first stuff through which silicate spectacless and ceramics had been produced. Silicon dioxide is one of the most often used substances in our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life and in the fabrication of electronics. Silicon dioxide normally occurs in crystalline and formless signifier. Crystalline Si dioxide is one of the cardinal ingredient in the readying of many minerals and treasure rocks.
There are many signifiers of silicon oxide out of which mesoporous silicon oxide is none of the signifier and it is one of the recent betterment or development in nanotechnology. The existent purpose of the scientists who found the mesoporous silicon oxide atoms is to utilize them as the medical specialty, bio fuels and for imaging intents.
Physical belongingss of silicon oxide:
1. It is white in coloring material.
2. The chemical expression of Si dioxide is sio2.
3. The molar mass of Si dioxide is 60.0843 g/mol.
4. The runing point of Si dioxide is 17100c.
5. The boiling point of Si dioxide is 22300c.
6. The denseness of Si dioxide is 2.634 g/cm3.
7. It is soluble in H2O.
8.Natural copiousness of Si dioxide is 2.2 mg/l.
9. Percentage composing of Si dioxide by mass is that silicon oxide contains 47.644 % and O contains 53.255 % .
10. Percentage composing of Si dioxide by figure is that silicon oxide contains 33.33 % and O contains 66.6 % .
1.1.2 USES OF SILICON DIOXIDE:
1.Silicon dioxide is one of the most of import compound which is used for the industry of electronics i.e Si dioxide has piezoelectric belongings which means it has the ability to change over mechanical energy to electrical energy and frailty versa.
2. Silicon dioxide is used as a sand for foundations.
3.Silicon dioxide is used as a sealer.
4. Silicon dioxide is used as a crude oil merchandise.
5. It is used as a thickener agent in medical specialties.
6. It is used as a detergent.
SILICA GEL STRUCTURE:
Explanation about the silicon oxide gel from the figure:
The silicon oxide gel basically consists of a group of Si atoms united together with O atoms by siloxane bonds.There are several silicon atoms of silica gel of which on each of the atom surface uncondensed hydroxyl groups are formed from origina polymersilici acid remain which is knon as residue. The residue formed suggests polar belongingss of silicon oxide. The surface of the silicon oxide is vague and contains more than one hydroxyl group which makes us hard to understand.There are three types of hydroxyl groups in silica gel.
1.First hydroxyl group has three siloxane bonds fall ining it to gel matrix which is attached to silicon atom.
2. Second hydroxyl group has two siloxane bonds in this out of the two hydroxyl groups, one of the hydroxyl group is attached to silicon atom.
3.The 3rd hydroxyl group has merely one siloxane bond which is attached merely to the silicon oxide matrix.
1.1.3 SILICA NANOPARTICLES:
The atoms with the size runing from 1 to 100 nanometers are known as nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are besides called as nanospheres when drug is binded with polymer matrix and when drug is incorporated in to the polymer matrix nanoparticles are called as nanocapsules.Nanoparticles can non be measured because of their bantam size and besides they possess surface country per unit volume which is unmeasurable due to this big figure of atoms are produced in the surface country and hence it produces quantum consequence.
The chief aim for abstract art of silicon oxide nanoparticles is to command the atom size and surface belongingss.
Silica nanoparticles have played vital and divergent function in each and every merchandise because the merchandise quality is dependent on the size of the atoms. From the simple projection of the bulk stuff we can non anticipate the cosmopolitan belongingss of the nanoparticles. The physical belongingss such as surface country and atom size will be changed where microparticles are converted in to nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles are present in the signifier of metals, metal oxides, semiconducting materials, C stuffs with varied chemical and morphological belongingss. Silica nanoparticles by and large have low luminescent or optical belongings, by adding assorted functional groups like phenols, aminoalkanes, thiols and carboxyls to better luminescent belongings because luminescent belongings is helpful in bio analysis and when compared with traditional fluorescent technique luminescent nanoparticles are precise in bettering the noticeable signals. The differences between silicon oxide atoms modified with the polymer and those of non modified are:
1. There will be more weight loss of the atom in the modified 1 ‘s when compared with non-modified.
2. There will be low H2O vapor surface assimilation due to hydrophobic surface belongings ensuing from polymers that are being adsorbed on to the silicon oxide when compared with non modified one ‘s.
3. Lower electrical conduction will be at that place when compared with non modified 1s.
Of all the stuffs that have been studied mesoporous nanoparticles are one of the outstanding stuffs with constructions that are good defined and atoms with good surface belongingss that are considered to be the best stuff as drug bringing system. Silica nanoparticles are much suited for drug bringing system because:
1. They are inexpensive [ cheap ]
2. Thermally balanced.
3. They are inert chemically.
4. They are biocompatible.
There are so many advantages of utilizing silica nanoparticles as a drug bringing system. They are
1. In order to accomplish both active and inactive targeting of the drug after parenteral disposal, the physical belongingss of mesoporous silicon oxide atoms such as atom size and surface country can be arranged
2. The defects such as decomposition of the atom and controlled release can be easy controlled by matrix constituents.
3. The other advantage of utilizing silica nanoparticles as a drug bringing system is that big sum of drug can be loaded in to the system such that no reaction occurs therefore forestalling the decomposition of the atom due to this the activity of the drug will non be changed.
4.Specific targeting of the drug at a site can be obtained by utilizing magnetic counsel.
Beside the advantages there are some disadvantages.
When the size of the atom is little and the surface country is more, so atom -particle interaction occurs which leads to agglomeration.
The other disadvantage is that when atom size is little and surface country is big sum of drug can non be loaded.
From the past few old ages the techniques which are based on nanoparticles had shown good betterment in the applications of medical specialties and bio analysis and besides based on the belongingss of inorganic nanoparticles and the polymer, nanoparticles loanblends have become advanced development in recent engineering.
1.1.4 TYPES OF NANOPARTICLES:
Nano atoms are divided in to several types. They are
1. Quantum points.
3. Fullerenes: Bucky balls and C tubings
7. Super paramagnetic nanoparticles.
8. Nano rods.
1.1.5 GENERAL METHOD OF SYNTHESIS OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES:
Synthesis of silicon oxide nanoparticles can be made by several methods but out of which the most general method used for the synthesis of silicon oxide nanoparticles are stober and sol-gel methods.
Synthesis: Hydrolysis and condensation reactions are really of import in these two methods for the readying of silicon oxide nanoparticles.In this tetra ethyl oxy silicate is used as a precursor.
Hydrolysis and condensation reactions:
Si ( OR ) 4 + 4 H2O > Si ( OH ) 4+ 4 ROH
Si ( OH ) > SiO2+ 4H2O
REFERENCE ; STOBER W.FINK, A.J BOHN, EJ.COLLOD INTERFACE SCIENCE 1968.
METHOD OF PREPARING SILICA NANOPARTICLES FROM SILICEOUS MUDSTONE:
As we know silicious mudstone is a mineral beginning of the silicon oxide, silicon oxide nanoparticles are prepared from silicious mudstone bu utilizing a chemical reaction.First aqueous solution of Na silicate is prepared and after that ingredient of silicon oxide is added to the aqueous solution which involves Na hydroxide reaction of silicious mudstone [ s100 ] . This is done to take the Na from the aqueous solution and after taking the silicious mudstone [ s200 ] is and after fixing s200 silicon oxide nanoparticles are prepared from aqeous solution by carry oning fire spray analysis.
1.1.6 APPLICATIONS OF SILICA NANOPARTICLES:
Cancer can be detected and diagnoised by the application of silca nanoparticles
Silica nanoparticles are utile in the application of biosensing.
Silica nanoparticles are used as biomarkers for leukamia cells
Silica nanoparticles are used in the application of bioanalytics
These are utile for drug bringing systems
They act as support for the accelerator
Silica nanoparticles are used as antibacterial agents
Silica nanoparticles are used for imaging intent.
Silica nanoparticles are used as magenetic reasonance agents
It is used as a cell marker in both malignant neoplastic disease and root cell.
They are used for targetting cell specification
For many organic compounds it is used as a stabilising agent
It is used in the industry of tablets as a glidant
It is used as antiviral agents for in vivo cistron bringing
These are utile in diagnosing for colon diseases
These are used for controlled release for drugs.
1.1.7 STRUCTURE OF SILICA:
Amorphous construction of silicon oxide:
Iler, R.K. , The Chemistry of Silica ( Plenum Press, New York 1979 )
The drug used is paracetamol.It is nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.It Acts of the Apostless as analgetic and antipyretic.
Referee: Pharmaco dynamic series by DR James Mitchell
Chemical CHARACTERISTICS OF PARACETAMOL:
The chemical features of paracetamol are
Chemical expression C8H9 NO2
The molecular weight of paracetamol is 151.17 g/mol.
The denseness of paracetamol is1.263 g/cm3
The thaw point is 1680c
It is soluble in H2O.
The bioavailability of the drug is 80 %
The half life is 1-4 hours
Peak plasma degree is 40 to 60 proceedingss.
The disposal of the drug is through unwritten, rectal and endovenous path.
Overdose of the drug leads to liver harm
1.It is used in the intervention for alleviation of hurting.
2.It is used for the diagnostic intervention for febrility
AIM OF THE PROJECT:
The purpose of the undertaking is to synthesize silicon oxide utilizing tween 40 and to analyze its usage as a drug bringing system.
2.1 Chemicals USED:
The chemicals used are:
Tetra ethyl oxy silicate
2.2 SYNTHESIS OF SILICA:
To fix silicon oxide we need a wetting agent and silicon oxide beginning so we take tween 40 as a wetting agent and tetra ethyl ortho silicate as a silicate beginning. First in the readying of the silicon oxide we should weigh 4 gms of tween 40 and after that in a measurement cylinder, step accurate volume of 65 milliliter of 2M [ molar ] hydrochloric acid.Now hydrochloric acid and tween 40 are assorted to do a solution. To the ensuing solution 35 milliliter of deionised H2O is added with uninterrupted stirring to do up the volume and now we should add 9.1 milliliter of tetra ethyl oxy silicate with uninterrupted stirring. By uninterrupted stirring homogeneousness and distorted oil H2O interface is obtained and maintain the solution aside for 24 hours. The merchandise obtained is filtered, washed with plentiful volume of H2O to take the farinaceous atoms. Then the merchandise obtained is silica which is dried at a room temperature and it is stored in a fictile bottle. Therefore, this is the manner I had prepared silicon oxide in the research lab.
2.3 CHARACTERISATION OF SILICA:
Silica word picture is done by different methods.They are
1.Scanning negatron microscopy
2. Transmission electron microscopy
3.X-ray pulverization diffraction
4. Surface country by N surface assimilation
5. Particle size measuring.
The word picture of silicon oxide is chiefly done because the silicon oxide atoms are unmeasurable due to their bantam size that is their size will be in the bomber micron scope. Based on the size of the atoms, the word picture of silicon oxide atoms is chiefly done by negatron microscopy to cognize the mesostructure of the sample.
Scanning ELECTRON MICROSCOPY:
Scaning negatron microscopy is one of the of import method to cognize the word picture of silicon oxide. By utilizing this method we can cognize overall signifier and construction of the merchandise without sing its map. Scaning negatron microscopy is done by mr.Ian Slipper of university of Greenwich at medway.This experiment is done by utilizing two-channel scan 90 scanning negatron microscope operated at 37 kilovolt and it is exaggerated 3700 times. To characterize the silicon oxide by scanning negatron microscope the silicon oxide particles must possess the capacity of the conductance. So, the atoms need to be gold coated to acquire the conductance.
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY:
This method is done by Mr.Ian Slipper of university of Greenwich at medway by sing HRTEM, JEOL, 200 CX equipment operated at 200k. This is an advanced engineering over scanning negatron microscopy that is if scanning electron microscope does non supply the clear cut construction of the sample so this method will be used. In this method as we know the silica atom size is really little, little sum of sample is taken and it is placed on the sample holder which is rod shaped and so the sample incorporating sample holder is adjusted in the instrument and therefore by analyzing the sample atom size and form is determined. This is the procedure how we characterise silica by utilizing transmittal electro microscope.
3. X-RAY POWDER DIFFRACTION:
X-ray pulverization diffraction is one of the of import method to characterize the silicon oxide. Chiefly this method is used to cognize the structural conformation and porous behavior of the particle.Although they are holding long scope order they are formless in nature, x-ray diffraction is by and large measured at low angles for this ground.
4.Surface country by nitrogen surface assimilation:
Nitrogen surface assimilation is the method used to mensurate non merely surface country but besides structural and morphological belongingss of the sample. At liquid N 78k nitrogen soaking up of the sample was determined by utilizing micromeritics Gemini 6 analysers.There are two of import methods to find the surface country by nitrogen surface assimilation. They are
Stephen brunauer, p.h Emmett
By mensurating the surface assimilation of non polar gases surface country is determined in BET.
5.Particle size measuring:
Particle size measuring is done by taking little sum of sample in a trial tubing and degassing is done for two hours in fluxing N.
DRUG ADSORPTION STUDIES:
PREPARATION OF DRUG SOLUTION
Paracetamol is the drug used in this experiment.The survey of soaking up drug standard solution and sample solution are prepared.
PREPARATION OF STANDARD DRUG SOLUTION
In a clean and dried conelike flask we should take 0.1 milliliter of rough paracetamol drug and it is diluted with 100 milliliters of H2O and it is agitated thoroughly.The prepared standard drug solution was used and labelled.
The prepared o.5 milliliter of standard paracetamol drug solution was taken in a dried conelike flask and it is made up to 2.5ml with distilled H2O and labelled as 0, .5 ml standard paracetamol solution.In the same manner 1ml, 1.5 ml,2.0ml, 2.5ml paracetamol drug solutions are prepared and labelled in the same manner.
Preparation OF SAMPLE SOLUTION:
We should take 50 milligram of silicon oxide in 5 little glass bottles and to it we should add o.5 milliliter of standard paracetamol drug solution and labelled as 0.5 milliliter of paracetamol sample solution. In the same manner the other solution 1, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 ml solutions are prepared and labelled severally.
Standard Paracetamol drug solution concentration is 100ppm. 0.5ml of standard paracetamol drug solution was taken which is of 20 ppm concentration. The optical density of the standard drug solution was measured and recorded known as optical density of criterion.
The optical density of the standard paracetamol drug solution was 1.907nm.
5ml of standard paracetamol drug solution was taken and add 0.05g of silicon oxides made with tween 40 was added to it. Record the optical density of the sample solution from the aqueous bed.
The optical density of sample incorporating silicon oxide tween 40 was recorded as 1.350nm.
The optical density of another silicon oxide prepared from CTAB [ cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide ] by the same procedure as mentioned above and it was recorded as 1.619nm.
we can cipher the sum of drug adsorbed on the silicon oxide by deducting the standard drug solution and sample solution optical density values from the above recorded optical density values.
Absstd – Abssam = measuring of the adsorbed drug
Optical density of standard drug solution is Absstd
Optical density after add-on of silicon oxide is Abssam
The sum of paracetamol drug adsorbed on the silicon oxide tween 40 is
Absstd – Abssam = adsorbed drug measrement
Absstd – Abssam = 1.907-1.350
The saddle horse of drug paracetamol adsorbed on the silicon oxide CTAB is
Absstd – Abssam = 1.907-1.619
Optical density A = E C cubic decimeter
Where E = molar concentration
C = concentration
cubic decimeter = way length
Absstd = E Cstd cubic decimeter and
Abssam = E Csam cubic decimeter
Absstd / Abssam = E Cstd cubic decimeter / E Csam cubic decimeter
Absstd / Abssam = Cstd / Csam
From this the concentration of the sample can be calculated as
Csam = Cstd X Abssam / Absstd
Since concentration of the criterion used was 20 ppm
The concentration of the sample incorporating silicon oxide TWEEN 40 and std drug solution
Csam = 20 X 1.350 / 1.907
= 14.15 ppm
The concentration of the sample incorporating silica CTAB and drug solution
Csam = 20 X 1.619/ 1.907
= 16.97 ppm
1 ppm = 1mg / 1 lit
= 1 µg / 1 milliliter
For 20 ppm
20ppm = 20 µg / 1 milliliter
5ml of drug solution is added to the samples.
So, the entire sum of drug added was
5 X 20 = 100 µg
Then the concentration of the silicon oxide TWEEN 40 is
Csam = 100 X 1.350 / 1.907
= 70.79 µg
The concentration of the silicon oxide CTAB is
Csam = 100 X 1.619 / 1.907
= 85.2 µg
The sum of drug adsorbed by 50mg of silicon oxide tween 40 is
100 – 70.79 = 29.21 µg
The sum of drug adsorbed by 50 milligrams of silicon oxide Tween 40 is
100 – 85.2 = 14.8 µg
From the above computations the sum of drug adsorbed by the 1 gram of silicon oxide can be determined.
The sum of drug adsorbed by the 1gm of silicon oxide tween 40 is
= 1000/50 Tens 29.21
The sum of drug adsorbed by the 1gm of silicon oxide CTAB is
= 1000/50 Tens 14.8
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
CHARACETERISATION OF SILICA:
The characetersiation of silicon oxide is done by the undermentioned methods:
1.Scanning negatron microscopy
2. Transmission negatron microscopy.
3. Particle size measuring.
4. Surface country by nitrogen surface assimilation.
5.Powder x-ray diffraction.
The sum of drug adsorbed on 1 gm of silicon oxide tween40 was found to be 0.58 milligram and in the same manner I have compared with my friend silicon oxide cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide found to be o.29 milligram when compared with my friend silicon oxide my silicon oxide tween 40 was found to be good adsorbed and it can be applied expeditiously in drug bringing system.
The atom size measuring was found by utilizing the equipment malver maestro sizer and it was found to be 6.651µm to 231.280 µm.
The surface country was determined by nitrogen surface assimilation method and it was found to be 0.14 m2/g which is less than 1 and from the consequences we can state that my silicon oxide is nonporous in nature and it is less efficient for drug bringing system because the surface country is less than 1.Hence sustained release of laden drug in drug bringing system is obtained.
From the consequences and treatment we can state that the surface country of the silicon oxide is less than 1 m2/g.So the resulted silicon oxide obtained is nonporous in nature.
From experimental informations the wavelength was found to be 242.2nm.
Suggestion FOR THE FUTURE WORK:
The surface country of the silicon oxide that I have prepared in the research lab is less than 1 m2/g so I suggest that attention should be taken while fixing the silicon oxide and accurate measurings should be taken to avoid the loss and debasement of sample.