This portion is a study in the MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracking methods that are used in order to increase the production of energy in PV systems. Recently, the demands for new methods of renewable energy have increased. One of the basic stuffs that used for the production of energy is the brown coal. The militias of this stuff have recorded of import decrease in different states.

With the speedy development of society the alternate solution of a renewable energy resource is peculiarly of import. Some of the renewable that have been developed the last old ages are the tidal and wind power. An of import piece of renewable resources constitutes of the solar power.

The solar energy is more interesting in comparing with other renewable beginnings because it decreases the ingestion of fuels for the production of energy, it is friendly for the environment and it has minimum cost for the building and the care. Besides, an of import component that renders the PV systems better than other methods is the minimum noise pollution that produces while operating.

The first PV arrays that were used for the production of energy presented some upsets at the continuance of their operation. The most of import job was that in some instances the energy that produced the PV systems was non plenty in order to cover the demands of the current that needed in one unit in order to work efficaciously ( e.g. generator ) . This means that the PV systems need development therefore the energy they produce to be satisfactory for the day-to-day demands.

With the transition of clip after different surveies, assorted methods were developed in order to increase the production of energy in PV. Common aim of the different methods that was used, was to turn up the maximal energy ( MPP ) that can bring forth the PV. At the continuance of surveies that have taken topographic point in old old ages the basic job in PV systems is the non-linear relation between current – electromotive force ( I-V ) .

The MPP in the PV systems depends from three of import parametric quantities. They are the solar radiation, solar light and the ambient temperature. Consequently the tracking control of the MPP in PV arrays is a complex state of affairs. In order to confront these jobs that have been developed from different methods of tracking control for the MPP. Some of these methods are the nervous web, fuzzy accountant, shaded insularity and gradient method.

Some of these methods have some disadvantages such as high cost, trouble, complexness and instability. The basic demands in order to accomplish the MPP in PV arrays are the simpleness, low cost, speedy tracking under altering conditions, and little end product power fluctuation.

Another of import factor for the most optimum operation of PV systems is the tracking operation at the continuance of operation of PV. From this procedure it is possible to look into at any clip the biggest energy that produced at the continuance of operation.

## Characteristic of Photovoltaic Cell:

The PV cells are constituted by a connexion of silicon P-N. When the Si is exposed to light negatrons exposed around by a closed circuit and in combination with the photons occurs an interaction between these atoms. The consequence of these interactions is the production of energy in the PV cells. The following image represents the basic circuit that is used for the production of energy in the most PV systems.

Figure: Photovoltaic cell equivalent circuit

The exposure current Iph generated in the PV cell is relative to the degree of solar light. I is the end product current of photovoltaic cell. The current ( Id ) through the beltway rectifying tube varies with the junction electromotive force Vj and the cell change by reversal impregnation current I0.

V is the end product of the photovoltaic cell.

Rsh and Rs are the parallel and series oppositions, severally. Parallel opposition Rsh is really big while the series opposition Rs is little.

When the figure of cell in series is ns, and the figure of cell in analogue is np.

The following mathematical equations are used in order to cipher the current that produced at the continuance of PV systems operation.

From the above mathematical equations a basic end product is concluded. The features of the PV arrays change when solar light ( S ) and ambient temperature ( T ) alteration. In the following graphs represented the operation of PV systems proportionately with the solar light that drained in them and the ambient temperature.

## Figure: Simulate current versus electromotive force curves of PV array influenced by

solar light

## Figure: Fake current versus electromotive force curves of PV array influenced

by temperature

In the first two graphs is observed the relation between the solar light and temperature that accepts the PV cells. The values of solar light that drained in the cells oscillate between 200 W/m2 and 1000 W/m2. The temperature in this stage remains changeless in 40oC. The electromotive force that produced in this phase oscillate between 300 and 350 Volts. This means that when the solar light is altered and the temperature is changeless the difference in the electromotive force is little. From the diagram shown that the electromotive force that created by this procedure oscillate between 300 and 350 Volts. On the other manus the solar light remains changeless and changes merely the temperature. Detecting the production of electromotive force we can see that the distance in the electromotive force ‘s values that green goodss are higher in comparing with the first graph. The electromotive force in the 2nd program oscillate between 250 and 400 Volts. This means that if the ambient temperature is increased so the electromotive force is increased every bit good.

Figure: Power versus electromotive force curves influence by the solar light

Figure: Power versus electromotive force curves influence by temperature

In these two graphs shown the relationship between Power – Voltage. The end product power of a PV array is the merchandise of current I and terminal electromotive force V.

From the above equation it becomes comprehendible that the end product power is influenced by the alteration of solar light and the ambient temperature. As in the two first graphs while the solar light alterations and the temperature remains changeless the production of energy is about same because it is oscillated between 300 and 350 Volts. When the solar light is changeless and the temperature changes it is observed once more that the electromotive force increased proportionately with the environmental temperature.

The purpose of the above graphs and mathematical equations is to turn up the MPP that the PV arrays produce. This is hard because of the continuously alterations of solar light and ambient temperature. The basic decision from the above graphs is that the MPP in PV systems depends instantly on the environmental conditions. Specifically when the solar light and the temperature alteration at the same clip so the MPP is more hard to be tracked harmonizing to the computations that reported antecedently.

For this ground different methods have been developed in order to analyse better the MPP in the PV systems. Below, an analysis of the methods that have been developed for this purpose is shown.

## MPPT methods:

The last old ages have been used a batch of methods in order to cipher the maximal power that can bring forth the PV systems proportionately with the environmental conditions. Many of them have been characterized complicated for their application and other peculiarly dearly-won. The basic job in order to turn up the MPP is the non additive relationship of the characteristic I – V curve. In the following a description for some methods that have been used for the MPPT take topographic point:

Fuzzy control method

Optimum gradient method

Grid connected Photovoltaic Using Neural method

Shaded sunstroke method

These four methods are some of those that have been used in order to turn up the MPP in PV systems at the continuance of their operation. The two first methods ( fuzzed accountant and gradient method ) utilizing the circuit that was analyzed in the 2nd portion for the production of energy. Nervous method and shaded sunstroke following a different procedure for the localization of function of MPP.

## Fuzzy accountant method:

The last old ages fuzzy logic accountants have been used in different industrial procedures owing to their heuristic nature which is connected with the simpleness and effectivity for both additive and non additive systems. A MPP hunt based on fuzzed heuristic regulations, which does non necessitate any parametric quantity information, consists of a stepwise adaptative hunt, leads to fast convergence and is sensorless with regard to sunshine and temperature measurings.

The chief aim of fuzzed accountant for the PV systems is to track and pull out maximal energy from them, compared to the degrees of solar light and ambient temperature. In the substance fuzzed accountant is an algorithm which attempt to turn up the biggest values that created at the continuance PV systems operation. The fuzzed accountant is constituted by three basic phases:

Fuzzification

Fuzzy regulation algorithm

Defuzification

## Fuzzification:

As first measure in fuzzification portion created two variables the ?P ( K ) and the ?U ( K ) . The little K represents the sampling monetary values which used for the recovery of maximal power value. P ( K ) and U ( K ) are the power and electromotive force of PV array. The end product variable is ?U ( k+1 ) . This symbol represents the electromotive force that produced harmonizing to the solar light that channelled in the PV cells and the ambient temperature. The following mathematical equations used in fuzzed method in order to cipher the MPP that produced from the PV systems.

?P ( K ) =P ( K ) -P ( k-1 )

?U ( K ) =U ( K ) -U ( k-1 )

This procedure is used in three different phases therefore the consequences to hold cogency. These three phases are the undermentioned:

Figure: The rank map of input ?P ( K )

In the first phase becomes inadvertent sampling in order to turn up the MPP. Via the samplings result five monetary values in the first phase placed by biggest to smallest topographic point. Positive large ( PB ) , positive little ( PS ) , zero ( ZE ) , negative little ( NS ) , and negative large ( NB ) . The plan operation is denser in the center of image in order to supply more sensitiveness against the discrepancy in the PV array terminal electromotive force.

Figure: The rank map of input ?U ( K )

In the 2nd program were created merely three samplings in order to turn up biggest ( P ) negative ( N ) and nothing ( Z ) PP.

Figure: The rank map of input ?U ( k+1 )

The last portion of this procedure is more complicated because it created more samplings in order to reflect wholly the upper limit and minimal point of PV operation. From the initial mathematical equations above seven new values came out for the upper limit and minimal points of energy production, positive large ( PB ) , positive center ( PM ) , positive little ( PS ) , zero ( ZE ) , negative little ( NS ) , negative center ( NM ) , and negative large ( NB ) .

The purpose of this procedure is to look into and compare the different values that created from the computations and MATLAB simulations. This procedure is accurate in order to happen the likely MPP.

Fuzzy regulation algorithm:

In order to accomplish this method certain ordinances should be followed therefore to emerge precise consequences. Some of the ordinances that used in fuzzed algorithm are the undermentioned:

## in instance that the last alteration in electromotive force ?U ( K ) has caused the power to lift, so the following alteration in electromotive force ?U ( k+1 ) has to travel at the same way, or if it has caused the power to drop, so we can travel it in the opposite way.

## because the fact of the characteristic curves might alter from the temperature of the sunlight degree, at this point will taking to an overall displacement of the optimal point.

## The optimal point start ‘s to tends to fulfill the status E™P/E™U=0, so might the system acknowledge a big tableland as a maximal power part and halt. besides some regulations have been identified to avoiding the stabilising consequence in a part that the true extremum power is zero.also it will be necessary for the systemto provide a regulation that stabilizes the point of the operation at a peak power point.

## Defuzzification:

After the rating of the regulations, the last measure was to cipher the chip end product of the fuzzy control with the procedure of defuzzification. in this paper we have used the centre of gravitation method for defuzzification. It computes the centre of gravitation from the concluding fuzzy infinite, and yields a consequence which is extremely related to all of the elements in the same fuzzy set. The sharp value of control end product ?U ( k+1 ) is computed by the undermentioned equation:

Where N is the maximal figure of effectual regulations, Wisconsin is the burdening factor, and ?Ui is the value matching to the rank map of ?U. after that, the concluding control electromotive force is obtained by adding this alteration to the old value of the control electromotive force:

U ( k+1 ) =U ( K ) + ?U ( k+1 )

## Using the stairss that we mentioned above, the fuzzed accountant can be implemented in existent clip for MPPT.

## Gradient method:

## Optimum gradient method is a numerical computation which bases on multi-dimension abandon and is originally an optimisation method in applied mathematics. The basic thought of the optimum method is to taking the negative gradient ‘s way of nonsubjective map as the way of iteration measure in order to shut in minimize. P-V characteristic curves of PV cell can be seen as a nonlinear map, and the object of MPPT is to seek the upper limit in P-V characteristic curves. MPPT can be implemented by the optimum gradient. The optimum gradient method can be defined as follow:

Supposed n-dimensional map degree Fahrenheit ( f: En ) in Euclid infinite, and map degree Fahrenheit is consecutive and differentiable, so there is a n dimensional row vector ?f ( x ) , ?f ( x ) is defined as gradient and as follows:

Defined a n-dimensional column vector g ( X ) = ?f ( x ) T, in order to look ‘s convenience, specify gk = g ( Xk ) = ?f ( Xk ) , the loop algorithm of the optimum gradient can be defined as follow:

Where Alaska is a non-negative invariable, seeking upper limit of P-V characteristic curve is towards to the way of the positive gradient K g. From the feature of PV cell, if the series opposition is omitted, it can obtain the relationship between power and electromotive force as follow:

Where map P ( V ) is a nonlinear map, this map is consecutive and has one order differentiable, and V is an alone discrepancy in map P ( V ) . Now thousand g is as follow:

## Nervous method:

Another method that has been used for the MPPT is the nervous webs for grid-connected photovoltaic systems. Nervous method is an algorithm that used in this instance in order to look into the maximal value of energy that produced from PV systems. Detecting the image the grid-connected photovoltaic system it is constituted by two basic parts, the encouragement convertor and the individual stage convertor.

Figure: Grid-connected photovoltaic system considered in this paper.

## Boost Converter:

A encouragement convertor can be used to increase the voltage magnitude of an inverter circuit and to command MPPT. Neural webs and pulse breadth transition ( PWM ) method are used to bring forth a pulsation for thrust governable switch ( SB ) . The computation of the end product electromotive force of the encouragement convertor can be seen from:

where Vn = input electromotive force ( end product electromotive force of PV array ) ,

VO = end product electromotive force,

Duty = responsibility ratio of governable switch.

## Single stage inverter:

The inverter circuit is change overing direct current to jumping current by utilizing hysteresis current control. besides provides current with sinusoidal wave form. this system is able to present energy with low harmonics and high power factor. The inverter circuit is composed of a DC beginning from a encouragement chopper circuit, four governable switches ( S1-S4 ) , an induction, and a transformer.

## Nervous Networks:

Neural web has the possible to supply an improved method of deducing non-linear theoretical accounts which is complementary to conventional techniques. Nervous webs have self-adapting capablenesss which makes them good suited to manage non-linearities, uncertainnes and parametric quantity fluctuations which may happen in a controlled works. In this method back extension nervous webs is utilised as pattern classifier. Back-propagation nervous webs is an illustration of nonlinear layered feed-forward webs. It is a cosmopolitan approximator.

## The development of the back-propagation algorithm represents a landmark in nervous webs, in that instance it provides a computationally efficient method for the preparation of the multilayer perceptrons. The back-propagation algorithm for the design may be viewed as an application of an optimisation method knowning as stochastic estimate.

The above information is suggesting the algorithm that is used for MPPT is portrayed in the following figure. That web has three beds, i.e. input bed, hidden bed and end product bed. The input bed has 3 nerve cells for array electromotive force, array current and cell temperature. The end product bed has one nerve cell for control encouragement convertor. The concealed bed has 300 nerve cells. The web is to the full connected, i.e. the end product of each nerve cell is connected to all nerve cells in the concealed bed through a weight which is non shown in the figure. Besides a bias signal is coupled to all the nerve cells through a weight.

Figure: Nervous web construction for MPPT.

Algorithm is used for preparation and back extension. The back-propagation preparation algorithm needs merely inputs and the desired end product to accommodate the weight. Back-propagation preparation is referred as supervised preparation. Neural web was trained utilizing MATLAB package. That web is trained with informations 4,279 sets with assorted solar irradiations and temperatures until error map less than 0.065.

## Shaded sunstroke:

Shaded sunstroke is one of the simplest methods that have been used in order to turn up the MPP in PV systems. The methods that reported above usage algorithms in order to turn up the MPP. These methods are peculiarly complicated and sometimes the operating point is likely to coverage on a local upper limit power point which is non the true peak power point on the I – V curve of the PV arrays.

Harmonizing to these information the shaded sunstroke method is simpler and the procedure that used is easy and comprehendible. As reported in the debut portion the MPP in the PV systems, depends on the environmental conditions ( temperature, solar light ) . Another factor that influences the end product of PV, is the unvarying and non-uniform sunstroke. In non-uniform sunstroke observed different maximal points in the I-P curve. In unvarying sunstroke is created one upper limit. This is peculiarly complex because merely one local upper limit point is non ever the true MPP in the I-V curve.

In the shaded sunstroke it is analyzed the non-uniform and unvarying sunstroke conditions. With the comparing of those two it is easier to turn up the precise maximal point. By detecting the image we can see two PV systems which are constructed from the same type. Each PV constituted from 930 sheets where 10 sheets connected in series and 93 sheets connected in analogue.

Figure: I-V and I-P features when 114 sheets are shaded

Figure: I-V and I-P features when 336 sheets are shaded

In the first instance ( fig. 11 ) the procedure realised under unvarying conditions. This means that the solar light is changeless in 1000 W/m2 and the ambient temperature is 25oC. From the entire 930 sheets 114 are shaded. The 2nd instance realised under from non-uniform conditions. This means that the solar light is altered and oscillate between 100 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 and the ambient temperature is the same as the old PV 25oC. In this instance the shaded sheets are 336.

The chief aim of this procedure is located under the MPP comparing the consequences between unvarying and non-uniform conditions under shaded sunstroke conditions. From the mathematical equations that will be used for the computation of MPP, the consequences from local upper limit points under non-uniform conditions will be compared and the local upper limit point from unvarying conditions.

It is of import to detect that in this procedure the measurings are realised in existent clip. The types that used for the computations are the undermentioned:

a is incremental value of Isc when surface temperature changes 1 grade C ( Adegree C ) ( Under the standard status ) ,

? is incremental value of V, when surface temperature changes 1 grade C ( A/degree C ( Under the standard status ) ,

Rs is series opposition of a faculty ( R ) ( Under the standard status ) ,

K is curve rectification factor ( ?/degree C ( Under the standard status ) ,

Isc is short circuit current ( Under the standard status ) ,

V2 I 2E2 anrd T2 is electromotive force, current, sunstroke strength and surface temperature of a faculty under the criterion

status,

V1, I1 E1 and T1 is measured values of electromotive force, current, sunstroke strength and surface temperature of a faculty.

## Comparison of the above methods:

By finishing this chapter we had some utile decisions for the efficiency of the above methods and processes that used for the localization of function of MPP in PV systems. After the analysis of the basic operation in each one of the above methods were observed some differences in the method that was applied in each method.

Each method has its ain positive elements harmonizing to the surveies that have been realised in order to accomplish the MPP in the PV arrays. Fuzzy accountant and Optimal gradient method utilizing the same circuit for the production of energy as it was reported in portion two of this chapter. The differences of those two methods are located in the procedure and the different algorithm that used for each procedure.

Fuzzy accountant algorithm has the advantage that improves well the efficiency at the continuance of tracking stage in comparing with a conventional algorithm for MPP in PV. Another advantage is that fuzzed algorithm is peculiarly suited for the fast altered environmental conditions. Finally is simple for the installing and it can be used such as one simple digital signals processor. Besides, Fuzzy logic accountants have the advantages of working with imprecise inputs, non necessitating an accurate mathematical theoretical account, and managing nonlinearity.

The advantages of Optimal gradient Method is that the peculiar algorithm it can follow any MPP fast and with preciseness. Another of import advantage of this procedure is that it improves well the efficiency of PV at the continuance a tracking stage against conventional algorithm.

The chief disadvantage for those two methods is that are instead complicated, and sometimes the operating point is likely to meet on a local upper limit power point which is non the true peak power point on the I-V curve of the PV array. Some excess disadvantages of the above two methods is that they have high cost, trouble, complexness and instability.

Compared to the above methods the Grid-connected Photovoltaic system utilizing nervous web follows the same procedure and has approximately the same advantages and disadvantages with fuzzed accountant method and to gradient method. The difference between these methods is that the Grid-connected PV utilizing nervous webs is simplicity and low cost, release speedy tracking under altering conditions and has little end product power fluctuation.

Finally, the shaded sunstroke procedure is really different in comparing with the above methods. The advantage of this procedure is that in shaded sunstroke did non utilize algorithm in order to do the procedure complicated as the other. The measurings for the localization of function of MPP are realised in existent clip. Besides in shaded sunstroke procedure can be realised different alterations at the continuance of tracking stage ( less shaded sheets, more shaded sheets ) in order to make more safety consequences.

By Completing the analysis for the advantages and the disadvantages for each method the chief decision is that each method is completed in 90 % . This means that there are some imperfectnesss such as the effectivity of operation and peculiarly for the methods that used algorithms for the localization of function of MPP. This decision might be that MPP that locate the algorithms are non 100 % the right consequence but sure the divergency is minimum. Harmonizing to these information the above methods and other similar should be improved more in order to make valid sentiments for the MPP of PV arrays.