Management Of Post Harvest Diseases Biology Essay

Vegetables are soft textured comestible works stuffs characterized by high wet contents and are By and large referred as perishable harvests in their fresh province. They are indispensable for nutritionally balanced diet in adult male ( Samir and Amnon, 2007 ) .They are of import beginnings of ascorbic acid ( vitamin C ) , Carotene ( Provitamin A ) , assorted vitamins, particularly folic acid, every bit good as minerals such as Ca and Fe. Some veggies are beginning of saccharides, proteins and dietetic fibers. Vegetables besides provide assortment, gustatory sensation and aesthetic entreaty to nutrient ( Opadokun, 2000 ) . In UK as in many other states veggies provide the necessary assortment and savory spirit to do enjoyment of an otherwise preponderantly starch diet possible.

Post crop losingss

Despite singular attempt made in increasing nutrient production at the planetary degree, about half of the population in the 3rd universe does non hold entree to adequate nutrient supplies ( FAO, 1989 ) . One major ground for this, is loss during post-harvest handling and selling. Evidence suggests that these losingss tend to be highest in those states where the demand for nutrient is greatest. In the underdeveloped universe about one one-fourth of what is produce ne’er reached the consumer for whom it was grown, and the attempt and money required to bring forth it is lost everlastingly ( FAO 1989 ) .

Causes of station – crop losingss.

Factors responsible for station crop losingss vary widely from topographic point to topographic point and go more complex as systems of marketing go more complex. However, in 1989, the Food and Agricultural organisation named three causes of post-harvest losingss of

veggies. These are mechanical hurt, physiological harm and pathological onslaught. Mechanical hurt – includes cuts, contusions, punctures, insect cicatrixs, oppressing and checking. On history of their soft texture, veggies are extremely susceptible to mechanical harm.

Physiological damaged- includes assorted responses of the fresh veggies to the station – crop

Environment, eg. Respiration, loss of H2O, maturing, etc. Respiration is the of import physiological Procedure in the post-harvest life of the veggies and mostly find their shelf life.

Pathological harm is caused by Fungis, bacteriums, viruses and roundworms, insects can supply lesions that serve as portals of entry for microorganism every bit good as circulating some works pathogens into the harvest. The pathological harm is by and large enhanced by mechanical harm,

1.1.2 Categorization of post-harvest losingss.

Opadokun, ( 2000 ) classified post-harvest losingss in veggies into four wide classs, viz. quantitative, nutritionary and economic losingss.

I.Quantitative losingss are losingss of measure of weight of the harvest. They may be the consequence of respiration or transpiration, losingss due to ingestion of the harvest by microorganisms, insects and gnawers.

two. Qualitative losingss include impairment in quality of the harvest. These may be due to loss of spirit,

impairment in texture and visual aspect to the extent of being rejected by the consumers.

three. Nutritional losingss are caused by internal metabolic reactions, which consequences in the dislocation of

Foods usually associated with the harvests. These losingss are non readily apparent to the consumers.

IV. Economic losingss result from combined consequence of quantitative, qualitative and nutritionary losingss ensuing in decrease in pecuniary value of the harvest.

1.2 The Fungal Botrytis cinerea

Botrytis cinerea is a member of the category Ascomycetes, it is a filiform Fungi with two phases in its life rhythm dwelling of nonsexual ( anarmoph ) and sexual ( teleomorph ) . The sexual phase consist of vegetive hypae, Sclerotium, macroconidia and microconidia while the sexual phase consist of a generative organic structure, the apothecum, which contains ascospores in additive asci ( Faretra and Grindle 1992 ) . B. cinerea is regarded as the most of import station crop fungal pathogen that causes Significant losingss in fresh fruits, veggies and ornamentals ( Theo et. Al, 2000 ) . Harvested harvest are peculiarly vulnerable to infection of B. cinerea because unlike vegetive tissue harvested trade goods a aging instead than developing. It ability to assail a broad scope of harvests in a assortment of manners of infection and its ability to develop under conditions predominating during storage, cargo and selling make its control a challenge ( Samir and Amnon, 2007 ) . In susceptible workss, new infections may get down in the spring every bit shortly as conditions conditions are favorable for disease development. Wet or really humid conditions may be extremely favorable for the spread of the disease. In some Botrytis species sclerotia develop on dead works tissue and organize the overwintering phase of the fungus. Fungal mycelium may besides overwinter in woody root dust. Sclerotia so shoot in the spring, or mycelium grows out of septic dust and conidiospore develops. Conidia may be windborne or rain splash to do new infections on susceptible host tissue.

Mode of infection of B. cinerea after crop:

Infection through flower:

B. cinerea can infect fruit via the flower staying in the really early phases of development and develop merely after crop when the fruit reaches full ripeness. Bloom blights frequently precede and lead to fruit and stem putrefactions. Aging flower petals of flower are peculiarly susceptible to colonisation by B. cinerea, and under cool, humid status abundant mycelium are green goods. The fungus frequently grow from melting petals in to the remainder of the blossoming and develops on the fruits doing bloosom-end rot.From there it can distribute and destruct portion or all the fruit ( Phillip et. Al. 2007 ) .

B. Infection through surface hurts and clefts:

Conidia can infect the fruit straight through adult clefts, cut root cicatrixs, insect lesions or lesions made by other pathogens. Infected fruits may developed H2O saoked xanthous viridity or grey brown irregular lesions which can be soft and spongy in texture ( Elad et. Al. 2004 ) .

C. Infection through crop cut and trimming:

Gray mould decompose class by B. cinerea normally occurs after crop on the cut surface on leafy veggies and fresh herbs ( ie Apium graveolens dulce, and basil ) . Foods leaking from damaged tissues make the cut surfaces good infection site for B. cinerea. Equally shortly as the infection is established decay can continue to full foliage tissue ( Michailides and Elmer, 2000 ) .

D. Insect mediated infection:

Activity of assorted invertebrate can play a function in polluting the green goods with inoculant. This was shown by infection of Kiwifruit through flowers with B. cinerea facilitated by thrips ( Thrips obscuratus ) and honey bees ( Michailides and Elmer, 2000 ) .High incidence of B. cinerea. Incidence was besides reported on Kiwifruits with garden snail ( Helix aspersa ) harm ; slime secreted by the snail stimulated the sprouting of the conidiospore. Honey bees and other types of insects sing flowers potentially have the capableness to circulate Botrytis in Strawberry ( MIchailides and Elmer, 2000 ) .

Among the vegetable attacked by B. cinerea are Arabidopsis thaliana and Lettuce lectuca sativa, which are the topic of this research.


Arabidopsis thaliana is a member of the household Brassicaceae that is most frequently found in disturbed home grounds. Although it is now naturalized in many parts of the universe, its native scope covers Eurasia, and Northern Africa ( Mitchell -olds 2001 ; Okane jr. and Al-shebaz, 1997 ; Sharbel et Al. 2000 ) . Arabidopsis thaliana is an one-year works which has a life rhythm of about 6 hebdomads. It is comparatively Small in size, the diameter of the rosette seldom transcending 12 centimeter, and is easy to turn under research lab conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is usually self pollinating and can bring forth 1000s of seeds from one person ( Abbot and Gomes, 1989 ; Redei,1975 ) . These are all advantageous characteristics of the works characteristics of the works for its usage in experimental systems, as they allow comparatively big figure of workss to be grown in limited infinites, over offspring from individual mutation or transgenic workss. The big figure of research group concentrating on Arabidopsis thaliana means that there is a broad scope of tools that facilitate the easiness of working with these species including efficient transmutation methods ( Clough and Bent, 1998 ) .

A features difference between Arabidopsis thaliana and other Arabidopsis species relates to its chromosome figure, with Arabidopsis thaliana possessing the lowest diploid chromosome figure at 2n = 2x = 10 ( 1e x = 5 ) , and stand foring the smallest genome within the Brassicaceae household as a whole ( -157 mbp ) ( Johnson et al, 2005 ) . Chromosome base Numberss of x = 8 are found in the other species which all are diploid except for Arabidopsis succia ( 2n = 4 ten 26 ) , an allopolyploid formed by the hybrization of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis arenosa ( O kane et Al. 1996 ; AL- Shehbaz and O kane, 2002 ; O kane and Al-shebaz, 2003 ; Hoda, 2004 ) .

Prior to the molecular epoch, the huge bulk of works species used by experimentation were those of either agricultural or horticultural relevancy. In genetic sciences surveies members of those group which had unusual or outstanding characteristics were concentrated upon, such as Pisum sativum, Zea may, and Antirrhinum majus ( Sturtevant, 1965 ) . It was Fredrich Laibach who was ab initio responsible for an increased involvement in the usage of Arabidopsis thaliana as a theoretical account works. In 1937, with the purpose of analyzing natural fluctuation and the effects of light quality on flowering clip and seed quiescence, he began to roll up different accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana holding notice the big fluctuation nowadays in physiology traits between them ( Somerville and Koornneef,2002 ) . He later suggested the suitableness of Arabidopsis thaliana as a theoretical account works for research on genomics and developmental biological science ( [ Laibach, 1943 ] cited in [ Somerville and Koornneef, 2002 ] ) . At that clip the suitableness of Arabidopsis thaliana as a theoretical account works was based chiefly on its generative characteristics, size and natural. It was besides noted that Arabidopsis thaliana cells had merely five chromosome brace ( [ Laibach, 1907 ] cited in [ Somerville and Koornneef,2002 ] ) , but it was non until the 1980 s and down of the molecular epoch that some other cardinal benefits of the usage of Arabidopsis thaliana as a theoretical account works became clear. It was found that Arabidopsis thaliana has a really low measure of atomic DNA ( about 70 megabits ) with comparatively few high insistent sequence ( Leutwiler et al.1984 ) , and this allowed the usage of recombinant DNA techniques with comparatively ease compared to organisms with larger genomes. It was subsequently shown that Arabidopsis thaliana could be transformed by incubation with Agrobacterium civilizations to bring forth transgenic transportation DNA interpolation mutations ( Feldmann and Marks, 1987 ) . This has since been improved upon so that modern techniques involved simply spraying the Agrobacterium onto the workss flowers for

successful transmutation to happen ( Somerville and Koornneef. 2002 ) . As molecular techniques boomed, so did the popularity of Arabidopsis thaliana as a theoretical account works ( Griffing and Scholl, 1991 ; Meyerowith, 1987 ; Meyerowith, 1989 ; Somerville, 1989 ) and this has resulted in the constitution of Arabidopsis thaliana newsgroups, stocks centres incorporating big Numberss of accessions, mutation and transformed lines and finally the publication of the full genome sequence of the works ( The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative, 2000 ) . Arabidopsis thaliana has now been used to pattern a diverse scope of systems including flowered morphogenesis ( Bowman et al, 1991 ; Weigel and Meyerowith, 1994 ) , trichome development ( Marks and Feldmann 1989 ; Marks, 1997 ) and plat – pathogen interactions ( Davis and Hammer Schmidt, 1993 ) . A more elaborate reappraisal of the stairss which led to the outgrowth of Arabidopsis thaliana as theoretical account works can be found in Somerville and Koornneef ( 2002 ) .

The production and description of big Numberss of Arabidopsis thaliana lines by molecular community, has provided a immense substructure and resource to scientist analyzing the ecology of workss which has been aided by the arrangement of these lines in easy accessible stocks centres, such as Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Center ( NASC ) . Loughborough, UK, surveies utilizing Arabidopsis thaliana as a theoretical account works can potentially bring forth economically and socially of import penetrations and thoughts for research, peculiarly as extrapolation of consequences is likely to be most relevant to other members of the Brassicaceae ( Price et al. 1994 ) , which includes many harvests of agricultural or horticultural importance across the universe. Many Arabidopsis thaliana cistrons have been found to hold homologues in cultivated Brassicaceae and in add-on, many facet of works defense mechanism that are employed by Arabidopsis thaliana have besides been widely observed in many other workss households ( Mitchel -Olds, 2001 ) . It has been concluded that because of the handiness of a complete genomic sequence, Arabidopsis provides an efficient system for understanding works defense mechanism against insect natural enemies in natural populations.

and in agribusiness ( Mitchell -Olds, 2001 ) . Therefore, Arabidopsis thaliana is going progressively of import as an initial works, peculiarly for plants on members of the Brassicaceae.

1.3.1 Morphology and life rhythm of Arabidopsis thaliana

Arabidopsis thaliana normally grows to a tallness of about 20-25 centimeter tall. The foliages form a rosette at the base of the works with a few foliages besides on the flowering root. The basal leaves are green to somewhat purplish in coloring material, 5-15 centimeter long and 2-10 millimeter wide with an full to coarsely saw-toothed border, the root foliages are little, unstalked, normally with an full border. Leafs are covered with little unicellular hairs called trichomes. The flower are 3mm in diameter, arranged in a corymb, their construction is that of the typical Brassicaceae. The fruit is about 5-20 millimeter long, incorporating 20-30 seeds. Rootss are simple in construction, with individual primary root which grows vertically downwards, subsequently bring forthing smaller sidelong roots. These roots form interaction with rhizosphere bacteriums such as Bacillus megaterium.The life rhythm of Arabidopsis thaliana is completed within 6 hebdomads. The cardinal root produce flower which grows after about 3 hebdomads, which self pollinate. In laboratory Arabidopsis thaliana is grown in petri dishes or pots under fluorescent visible radiation or in nursery.

1.4 The works boodle

Lettuce Lactuca sativa is a member of the household Asteraceae ( Compositae ) , Lettuce is an one-year herbaceous works grown in UK since 16th centuary, with chromosome figure of 2n=18. Lettuce lack extended root system, it has thick mass of root which are around the first 15 centimeter of the dirt. It has chief root with hempen sidelong subdivisions. The root is cylindrical incorporating latex which may be up to 1m in length. The foliages which are sessile arranged in rosette their coloring materials vary from visible radiation or xanthous green to dark green The flower are in heavy bunchs, yellow in coloring material and pentamerous. The seeds are egg-shaped in form 3-4 millimeter on length, ribbed, with a white, xanthous, gray papppus of satiny hairs ( Tindal, 1983 ) .

1.4.1 Types of Boodle:

Sowey and Shaw ( 2006 ) classified Lettuce cultivars into five chief types on the footing of predominant usage and works signifier. The crisphead ( icebaerg ) signifier closed caputs resistant to mechanical harm. This is the type Predominantly grown in Europe and America. The butter caput type signifiers open loose Head with soft foliages which are easy damaged by managing. Leaf lettuce portion this delicate nature. Romaine boodle has elongated erect leaves which forms a loose loaf-shape caput. While root boodle is grown for its midst parenchymatous root, which is harvested during vegetive phase of the works.

1.4.2 Composition and Nutritional value of boodle:

Lettuce contain high H2O content of about 94-95 % .However, the nutritionary contents varies in

different signifiers of boodle. Romaine boodle is more alimentary and provides 22mg of ascorbic acid, 1925 I.U. of vitamin A and 44mg of Ca in 100mg of comestible merchandise. Crisphead boodle provide moderate Sums of ascorbic acid ( 7mg 100mg ) , vitamin A ( 470 I.U./100g ) and Ca ( 22mg/100g ) .Leaf lettuce Provide 18mg ascorbic acid,1900 I.U. of vitamin A, 68mg in 100g of comestible merchandise. Butterhead lettuce Supply 8mg of ascorbic acid, 1065 I.U. of vitamin A and 35mg of Ca per 100g of comestible merchandise. Irrespective of the type all boodle supplies iron, Na, P and K ( Ryder, 1999 ) .

Chapter TWO


2.1 Contributions of Botrytis cinerea on post-harvest losingss:

Botrytis cinerea is likely the most normally distributed diseases of fruits and veggies throughout the universe ( Agrios, 1997 ) . A study carried out by ONeil et Al. ( 1997 ) stated that B. cinerea is the common disease impacting both field and protected harvests in UK. B. cinerea causes a disease called grey mold putrefaction or botrytis blight. Botrytis cinerea is a necrotic Fungi which infects a broad scope of works species one-year and perennial workss. Botrytis infection is favoured by cool, showery spring and summer conditions normally around 15 0C ( 60F ) .Botrytis cinerea can infect many cosmetic workss including windflower, begonia, calendula, chrysanthemum, Dahlia pinnata, cornel, fuchsia, geranium, hawthurm, ling, hydrangea, marigold, Viola tricolor hortensis, periwinkle, petunia, rose, snapdragon, sunflower, sweet pea, violet zinnia ( Elad et. Al, 2007a ) .

Among veggies and fruits, B. cinerea can infect Arabidopsis thaliana, boodle, Asparagus officinales, beans, beef, carrot, Apium graveolens dulce, chicory, crucifers, cucubits, swede, shallot, strawberry onion, Piper nigrum, murphy, raspberry, cucubits, aubergine, endive, grape, boodle, tomato, Brassica rapa, and others. The two other damaging Botrytis blight have strict host penchant: B. paeonie infect paeony, and B. tulipae infect tulip doing the disease known as tulip fire ( Elad et. Al. 2007a ) .

2.2 Epidemiology of Botrytis cinerea

In 1977 Agrios defined epidemiology as the spread of diseases in a population, and gave three chief constituents of epidemiology as parasite, environment and the host. The degree of the virulency, type and measure of inoculants and the manner of spread are factors of the pathogen that affect a diseases. The environmental factors include temperature, wet, comparative humidness and natural enemies ; and host factors include genetic sciences composing, age and foods position of the host. Botrytis cinerea causes many jobs to the nursery and field harvests. However, the epidemiology of B. cinerea and it command possibilities differ between nursery harvests with that of field harvests. The construction of the nursery, the stuffs used and the cropping method have great influence on the host works and diseases. The infection of B. cinerea of potted workss in the nursery can happen during production or after harvest ( Kohl et. Al. 2000 ) . In ( 2004 ) Aleid besides stated that the type of nursery covering influences monogenesis by absorbing near- UV visible radiation, but may heighten disease by act uponing the nursery clime.

Aleid et. Al ( 2004 ) stated that B. cinerea causes jobs in many nursery harvests such as tomato, Cucumis sativus, Piper nigrum, strawberry, sweet basil, rose, Gerbera and most potted workss. In veggies it may infects fruits, foliages and stems. Stem infection ensuing from growing through leafstalk or from direct infection of lesions may do works decease. In cut flowers, symptoms largely occur during the station crop stage.

Van Denber and Lentz ( 1968 ) working on the consequence of temperature and comparative humidness on growing endurance of B. cinerea on murphy dextroglucose agar, their work shows that mycelium survived longer than conidiospore and survival lessening with diminishing comparative humidness and was significantly less at 20 0c than at 0 0c. They besides shows that sprouting of B. cinerea conidiospore occurred merely in solutions in which the mycelium could turn and last. Similar consequence is shown by Temperature on the growing rate of B. cinerea. The rate of growing addition with temperature to a upper limit of about 20 0c, but goes down really fast to above 25 0 degree Celsius.

ONeill et Al. ( 1997 ) reported that the optimal temperature for the growing of tomato flowers and cubic decimeter foliages by B. cinerea was between 10 and 20 0c. They besides reported monogenesis to be maximal at 15 0c. They besides shows that susceptibleness of tomato root pieces to infection lessenings with increasing wound age.

Elad et Al. ( 1992 ) observed that the nutritionary position of host works is affected by their

susceptibleness to the development of Grey mold epidermics in veggies nurseries. They besides reported that high humidness reduces the motion of Ca to the upper portion of the works and Ca enrichment of host tissue reduces the susceptibleness of tomato, Piper nigrum and aubergine to gray mold. Greenhouse epidemics are besides enhance by endocrine interventions. Hormone auxin which is applied to heighten fruit scene and development in tomato, nursery seem to impact the susceptibleness of immature fruits to gray mold. The endocrine consequences in early maturing of the workss which make them more susceptible to infection.

Coertz et Al. ( 2001 ) found that surface colonisation of the pathogen was enhance by both wetness and host phenology. The survey shows that free H2O on grape berry had a negative consequence on colonisation, but the damaging consequence of free H2O was differentially influence by the mature berries.

Apart from the environmental factors pathogen and host interaction may depend on the handiness of foods to the infecting pathogen, these foods may either originate from the host tissue or from external beginnings ( Elad 1997 ) . Plant exudat secondary metabolites which may impact the behaviour of B. cinerea in the phyllosphere. Alimentary addendums may non merely act upon the pre incursion activities, but, may besides act upon subsequent symptoms development ( Elad 1997 ) .

Anuja and Shaw ( 2008 ) stated conidial denseness as an of import factor which affect infection and symptom development in B. cinerea. Visible incursions produced by inoculant of high conidial concentration was found to be between 5-10 % of the conidial germlings. The per centum was higher 20-80 % when the concentration of conidiospore was low.

2.3 Gernination of B. cinerea in a susceptible host:

B. cinerea can bring forth conidiospore on every host works. They are unbiquitous in the air and can be transported by air current, rain and insects over long distance before infecting the following host ( Theo et. al 2000 ) .After fond regard on the host, conidiospore germinates under favorable status and bring forth a source tubing that penetrates the host surface. After incursion the underlaying cells are killed and the fungus established a primary lesion, in which the mortification and defense mechanism responses may happen. At certain phase the defense mechanism barriers are reached and the fungus start a vigorous branch, ensuing in rapid maceration of works tissue, on which the B. cinerea eventually sporulates to bring forth inoculant for the following infection ( Theo et. Al, 2000 ) .

Hawker and Hendy ( 1963 ) reported that sprouting of conidiospore took topographic point after soaking H2O for 6h at 20 0C. Surveies with light microscope showed that the first seeable phase in sprouting was the puffiness of the spore through consumption of H2O and source -tube emerged.

Cotoras et. Al ( 2009 ) showed that B. cinerea present high variableness in several biological traits, which can be explain by the grade of genotypic diverseness among isolates. The consequences obtained from probe on the demands for conidial sprouting in 3 natural isolates of grapes G1, G5and GII showed that contact with solid surface is a common demands for conidial sprouting of the isolates but differ in their nutritionary demands to shoot. Isolate GII was able to shoot in the absence of C or N beginning. While isolate G1 and G5 required the presence of C beginning such as glucose, fructose or sucrose. The shooting conidiospore of B. cinerea green goods enzymes capable of hydrolysing the wax cuticle and cell wall of septic works ( Elad and Evenson, 2000 ) . Enzymes secreted into the liquid civilization by B. cinerea are thought to be in infection, peculiarly the cell wall degrading enzymes, such as endo and exo polygalacturonases, pectin lyse pectin methyl esterase, and cellulose have been reported ( Robert, 1999 ) Polygalactoronase was readily noticeable in extracellular matrix readying and was eliminated by boiling. Pectin methyl esterase, pectin lyse and cellular activities were observed with both boiled and unwarmed readyings. In another survey it was reported that cellulose from B. cinerea retained activity after boiling and that pectin methyl esterase exhibit activity at 80 oC. The response of pectinlyse to warming has been reported.

Another enzyme though to be of import in the infection procedure of B. cinerea is cutinase. Culture filterate from B. cinerea posses cutinase activity, and alterations of the cuticle in the locality of the infection hypha at the site of incursion have been noted ( Robert, 1999 ) .In contrast to cell wall degrading enzyme, laccase, is thought to play a function in protecting B. cinerea from works defense mechanism compounds. Suppression of the synthesis of laccase could increase the virulency of the pathogen toward the host ( Bar-Nur et. Al. 1998 ) .

2. 4 Symptoms of Botrytis cinerea

Van kan ( 2005 ) stated that Botrytis cinerea is a fungous pathogen of broad scope of species, with different diseases rhythms. However, non all the procedure occur in every infection. The fungus is able to infect all aerial portion of its host works to a certain extent. Infection may consequences in a serious harm both during works growing and in the station crop stage during cold storage or during conveyance. B. cinerea is a pathogen which invade works tissue straight or through lesions and senescent or dead variety meats ( Elad,2007a ) . The pathogens infect many species and causes many diseases in many harvests including those grown in the unfastened and those grown in the nursery, ( Elad, 1997 ) .Infection causes electrolyte escape from host cell, decrease of chrolophyll contents and photosynthetic rate which consequences in seeable diseases symptom9Zhang et. Al. 1996 ) .

2.5 Mechanism of infection of Botrytis cinerea

Kamoen, ( 1992 ) reported that infection of the tissue of the host by fungous Fungis occurs through three chief phases which include sprouting of the conidiospore on the surface of the works, incursion of the cuticle and enlargement of fungous hyphae within host tissue. It is non certain conditions mechanism of incursion of the works tissue by B. cinerea is mechanical or enzymatic. Method of incursions may differ based with the conditions and host type.

Javis, ( 1977 ) reported that incursion of an integral host cuticle is strictly mechanical. A conidiospore which lands on the cuticle becomes attached to the substrate by agencies of an adhesive gluey sheath which surrounds the source tubing. Penetration frequently occurs straight from the distal terminal of the source tubing. Apart from direct incursion of the cuticle in germ tubings of B.cinerea are capable of perforating pore. Mycelium which ever has a foods supplying saprophyte base infects in the same mode as germ tubings. The mycelium has s greater inoculums potency because it is less dependent on the external environment.

Infection country may originate from conidiospore, mycelium, , and ascospores ( Tenberge, 2004 ) .Fungal species have develop assorted agencies of incursion schemes in to works cell walls. The brush between B. cinerea and the host works start when conidiospore steadfastly attach to the surface of the host and travel on to shoot culminating in the infection after incursion into the host works. The first phase in the incursion occurs upon hydration usually characterized by weak adhesion forces. The 2nd phase, delayed adhesion occurs after conidiospores have been incubated under favorable conditions. The delayed adhesion is usually associated with secernment of extracellular matrix ( Cotoras and Silva, 2005 ) .

Attachment to the foliage surface by conidiospore is enhanced by the environmental conditions. Temperature alterations, can change the adhesion belongingss of conidiospore. Changeless alterations in temperature has an influence on respiration and rate of metabolic activities which could therefore consequence adhesion of the spores. The right incursion mechanism of the host by the spore may affect a specific interactions, orhydrophobic contact with the works cuticle. It is believed that the fond regard of spore to the substrata is frequently related with production of extracellular matrix by the fungous spore. In B. cinerea, extra matrix polymers are released following source pore Lysis and concurrent with germ tubing growing. Fungal extracellular matrices have been shown to dwell of two categories of adhesive substances like polyoses and proteins glycoproteins ( Tucker and Talbot,2001 ) .

Attachment of germinated conidiospore to the host is enhanced by the extracellular matrix. The secernment of extracellular matrix is by the source tubings and appresoria non by the conidiospore. The extracellular matrix secreted by B. cinerea play a function in tropism along the infection site, forestalling dessication of germlings, and supplying a matrix in which enzymes and fungous toxins required for the infection could be sequestered. Some the enzymes used by B. cinerea during infection are cell-wall degrading enzymes including endo and exo- polygalacturonases, pectin lyse, pectinmethyl esterase and cellulose and cutinase. In contrast to the cell wall degrading enzymes laccase, which is thought to play a function in protecting B. cinerea from works defense mechanism compounds ( Viterbo et al, 1992 ) . Majority of the enzymes believed to be in the infection procedure are in the extracellular matrix ( Doss, 1999 ) .

Reino et Al ( 2004 ) working on the relationship between toxic production and virulency on B. cinerea on bean foliage phonograph record reported that isolates which produce less toxin were less deadly. Deadly refers to the extend to which a pathogen can do disease to it host. Delon et Al. ( 1977 ) found that B. cinerea Causes fast distributing putrefaction in boodle when conditions are favorable. The tissue of the host is wholly destroyed within 72 hours. Besides devolution of host living substance is completed when the fungus invade the host cells. For sometimes cell walls are able to defy lysis for sometime but they are finally ensuing in the soft putrefaction and prostration of the tissue. The fungus seems to be really active when it moves through the tissue of the dead host. This is supported by the hypae of many ribosomes, polyribosomes, chondriosomes, and multivesicular organic structures. The fungus it self degenerates during host lysis and this is indicated by a death in cytol and organelle denseness and the visual aspect of vesicular constructions.

2.5.1 Latent infection of B. cinerea

One of the interesting phenomena with B. cinerea is ability of the pathogen to be quiescent in the host tissue for a varying periods either during the harvest turning seasons or station crop ( Aleid et. Al. 2004 ) .

Verhoeff ( 1974 ) stated that Latent infection is a hibernating or quiescent period of parasitic relationship were the pathogen takes long period during the host life rhythm in quiescent until, under certain specific fortunes, when it become active. Elad et. Al. ( 2004 ) described latent infection as quiescent infection in which the fungus germinates on the surface of the works but remains hibernating under the cell epidemic confine to few cells or as mycelial fragments which progress in to the works tissues. Many research workers believed that latent infection act as a beginning of conveyance for inoculant from infected to diseases-free countries. The consequences obtained by Sowley and Shaw ( 2006 ) shows that latent infection is seed borne in boodle, with seed moving as the transporting medium for the inoculant.

Yermiyahu et. Al. ( 2006 ) stated that a high humidness degree, greater than 95 % for a period of more than 3 hours, is critical threshold for the sprouting of spores of B. cinerea. Once this period is exceeded so spore sprouting will go on even if the humidness is reduced to 80 % or less. However, where high humidness periods are kept at 3 hours or less there is small sprouting or disease development, even after a period of fluctuating high and low humidness periods.

Once infection has occurred, leaf wetness is of import for symptom look, with disease badness increasing with foliage wetness continuance. Symptoms may develop within hours, or the infection may stay hibernating and symptomless, non going active until yearss or even hebdomads subsequently. This is known as latent infection. Due to the potency for latent infection by B. cinerea, film editings taken from seemingly healthy but septic workss can later develop Grey mold symptoms. Similarly, produce that appears healthy at the clip of reaping and packaging can subsequently develop symptoms of Grey mold during theodolite or storage ( Elad et. Al. 2007 B ) .

2.5.2 Systemic infection


2.6 Role of bacteriums in the aggressiveness of B. cinerea infection

Dewey et. Al ( 2004 ) reported that like all other fungi bacteriums, infection of B. cinerea is aggressiveness is enhanced by bacteria.s The bacteriums assit B. cinerea to occupy the host either through lesion or aging tissue.

2.7 Plant defense mechanism against infection of B. cinerea:

Verhoff ( 2000 ) reported an increased in aggressiveness of B. cinerea with works age, that lead to the loss of defense mechanism. The loss of defense mechanism may originate when most of the resources are channel for blooming or may be the consequence of disesea that multiply over clip. Elad, ( 1997 ) noted that susceptibleness to gray mold of works variety meats, peculiarly fruits and flowers additions with ageing or maturing. Factors which accelerate aging such as ethene, tend to increased susceptibleness, while intervention which hold aging such as Ca, cytokinin and gibberellins tend to increase opposition. Senescence is a combination of many procedures nevertheless, it is unknown which of these are of import for B. cinerea susceptibleness.

Odjakova ( 2001 ) , Dangl and Jones92003 ) , and Ferrari et. Al. 92007 ) agrees that workss are the major mark of bugs seeking nutrition. A complex array of infection between workss microbes evolved that reflect both the foods acquisition schemes of bugs and defense mechanism schemes of workss. Part of the scheme includes an active offense against bugs utilizing an array of antimiccrobes cistron products.The bulk of of works bugs encounter do non consequences in diseases. Preformed constituents, antimicrobic cistron peptides, proteins, proteins and not proteinecious secondary metabolites that prevents invasion have been proposed to lend significantly to the scope of pathogens ( Heath, 2000 ) . The importance preformed defense mechanism has been inferred from observation that workss can be rendered susceptile by a lack in the synthesis of secondary metabolites ( Morris and Osbourn, 2000 ) .


Infection by B. cinerea is mostly dependent on the host and portion of the works involved.

Infected works during moisture or humid status develop multitudes of silvery Grey spores on

he dead or deceasing tissue. These spores are readily liberated, and may look as dust

coming off of septic works stuff. Some species of Botrytis signifier bantam black resting

constructions called Sclerotium that may be apparent on dead works tissue in late summer.

However, non all species of Botrytis readily form these, so they may non be observed on

all workss ( Anonymous, 2000 ) . Botrytis blight can impact foliages, stems, Crowns, flowerbuds, seeds seedling bulbs with exclusion of roots. Depending on the location of the harvest, symptoms may ab initio look either on the flower and cods or flower in the harvest canopy. The most detrimental symptoms became evident after the canopy. The disease appear foremost as distinct pick coloured lassions on lower foliages. These enlarge and coalesce to infect whole cusps which subsequently senesce and autumn to the land. If conditions remain contributing for disease, that is warm and wet under the harvest canopy for atleast 4 yearss, infection can distribute to the roots. These lesions will deaden the root and go covered with a furred bed of Grey mold, finally doing root decease and whole works decease, occur before the oncoming of blossoming and cod fill. Infection will go on to distribute ensuing in spots of dead workss with harvests ( Anonymous, 2000 ) .

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