Problems which arise as a consequence of impaired metamorphosis and nutritionary in beginning are called metabolic diseases. These jobs occur in dairy animate beings largely, around birth. After break uping, animate being is stressed due to break uping, physiological and hormonal alterations and increasing milk production. These stress factors further aggravate state of affairs by cut downing feed consumption and animate being goes in -ve energy balance. Animal ca n’t acquire adequate energy required to carry through its organic structure demands. Besides these jobs if animate being is non managed decently, it is apt to catch disease which turns out to be a great blow on economic system of farm. Once an animate being contracts a disease, it becomes more prone to that disease in subsequent lactations as compared to those animate beings which did non meet the disease. We can easy avoid these jobs through good direction. As cost of intervention is excess load on farm economic system. And their direction is much easier, does n’t be much. We can easy avoid or command these diseases by supplying balanced rations along with addendums as a contraceptive step.
These jobs are interlinked and chained with each other. A disease acts as a precursor for the other ; for illustration fatty liver disease acts as a precursor for ketonemia and these both strengthen evidences for displaced fourth stomach. Hence, a individual disease, due to swerve carelessness of direction, becomes a syndrome. Once a disease occurs it becomes a future menace. If an animate being encounters a disease, he / she fails to give its maximal production even if treated decently, in certain cases.We can forestall happening of such diseases by following a aureate rule ” Care is better than remedy ” . Fix the animate beings for future challenge. Through direction we equip them for upcoming convulsion. Some of these diseases are 100 % fatal, for illustration milk fever, if it is non treated, it is 100 % fatal. But its incidence can be easy evaded by cut downing Ca consumption or by supplying anionic acidogenic diet ( -ve DCAD ) pre partum in dry period. Fatty liver disease can be prevented by keeping organic structure mark around mean 3.5.Interestingly, by taking preventative steps against one disease, other disease itself gets ruled out. Management can salvage an endeavor from immense losingss, so follow the aureate regulation “ attention is better than remedy ” .
Nutritional jobs that show acute marks and need prompt intervention ; occur largely merely earlier break uping to top out lactation. During this clip conditions become more favourable because of disconnected alteration in metamorphosis from little to big demands of production.Following are the metabolic jobs:
1. Udder Edema:
Pooling up of fluid ( blood ) in bag as break uping draws near and near, is called udder hydrops. It is a normal phenomenon but sometimes it becomes drastic and terrible, manifests as inordinate swelling around the bag, on bag and nipples.It creates hinderance in normal milking and Suckling and airss as a hazard factor for suspensory setup of bag.
Major cause of this job is impaired or decreased blood and lymph flow from lower venters. This reduced flow is mostly because of foetal force per unit area. Sometimes it becomes really terrible but gets itself corrected within few yearss unless aggravated. Other causes include heavy grain eating and heavy Na and K consumption. Owing to these jobs UE appears as a herd job and most serious for first-calf -heifers. Hypoproteinemia is considered another cause for blood proteins are used to do foremilks. Some people do n’t hold with this thought. Rate of happening is different in different state of affairss but it should be less than 3-5 % in footings of terrible instances that require intervention.
Prevention before break uping includes proviso of small exercising to animal since it enhances circulation, massage of bag for it improves blood circulation. Sometimes milking before calving is used as preventative step for it reduces udder force per unit area. Some people opt for water pills every bit good. After break uping Prevention after break uping, intervention with corticoids along with water pills and sometimes merely water pills besides work good. This intervention enhances elimination of fluid through piss. As foetal force per unit area is the chief cause of the job, induced birth seems a logical option in really terrible instances. Carefully proctor grain eating and avoid feeding high sums of salts in late dry period.
2. Milk Fever:
It normally occurs near or at calving.Ca degree lessenings in blood and musculus become weak. Sometimes may take to decease. It is most common metabolic disease and if non treated good consequences in other complications like uterine inactiveness, prolapsed, retained foetal membranes etc.Normal incidence rate is 3-8 % and it may go every bit high as 25-30 % and even higher. The rate of incidence is straight relative to age and para. It is seldom observed in first- calf -heifers, sporadic in 2nd calf heifers, 3rd calf heifers encounter this job normally 1st clip and up to 6th lactation incidence may be every bit high as 20 % .Why its incidence addition with age and para? Because as age and para addition, milk production besides addition but Ca mobilisation lessenings.
Decrease Ca consumption in dry period.It is done to originate Ca mobilisation from castanetss before birth in order to acquire voluminous sum of Ca with increasing milk production to provide the demands. But it does n’t work much as is really hard to explicate diets with so much low Ca content.
Dietary cation-anion difference has revolutionized milk febrility bar therapy for it is non hard to set cations and anions in diet. Feeding anionic diet ( -ve DCAD ) , in late gestation, consequences in acidosis of blood which causes Ca reabsorption from castanetss and additions Ca soaking up in intestine. This can be done by adding anionic salts such as Ca chloride, Mg chloride, Mg sulphate, Ca sulphate, ammonium sulphate and ammonium chloride.
Another scheme to cut down blood pH is by take downing K content of diet of a cow near break uping. It can be done by keep backing K fertilisers on Fieldss from which dry cattles are being fed.Addition of anionic salts in diet of dry cow in order to counter the consequence of high cation degree. The mark value for close up dry cow rations is +200 to +300 mEq/kg. Poor palatableness is the chief job in feeding anionic diet so some toothsome point such as maize silage and molasses should be added every bit good.
Milk febrility can besides be prevented to happen by disposal of vit.D3 and its metabolites in dry cow.20-30 million U/day, for 5-7 yearss prepartum reduces the incidence. OR Single inj. Of 10 million IU of crystalline vit. D, 8 yearss before calving, is besides effectual. After break uping diet high in Ca content is required. Man-made bovine Parathyroid endocrine is preferred to vit D metabolites as it causes Ca soaking up in intestine and Ca reabsorption from castanetss every bit good. But chief job lies in the handiness of such merchandises.
It normally occurs in grownup cowss in early lactation ( 1st 6 wks ) .It is characterized by partial anorexia, depression, nervous disfunction marks, unnatural pace etc. It occurs when there is inordinate adipose mobilisation and high glucose demand which are usually present in early lactation because of negative energy balance. In this disease carnal refuses to take grains, feed consumption is reduced. It is diagnosed on the footing of presence of ketone organic structures in milk and piss.
Maintain organic structure status when cows go excessively fat. Ketonemia can be prevented by keeping and advancing provender consumption because provender consumption is reduced in last 3wks of gestation. In late gestation closely observe feed consumption and adjust rations to maximise DM and energy ingestion. Concentrations of NDF should be 28-30 % and non-fiber saccharides concentration 38-41 % .Supplementation of propene ethanediol, Ca propionate, niacin, Na propionate, and first stomachs protected choline in the provender is besides helpful in bar of ketonemia
4. Downer Cow Syndrome:
In cattle status of drawn-out inability to lift is called DCS. Two yearss before break uping to 10 yearss station calving are most susceptible for happening of this disease. Cows which do non respond to Ca therapy two times are termed as sedative cattles. The chief cause of the ” sedative cow ” is recumbence for a longer clip ( beyond 4-6 hours ) . Most cattles which do n’t respond to milk fever intervention later become sedative cattles. So largely it is considered a worsened instance of parturient paresis.
Postmortem test of sedative cattles shows marks of hurt, due to trauma, to heavy musculuss and thigh & A ; pelvis nervousnesss. The cause of hurt could be dystocia, parturient paresis etc. and it can happen before, after or during break uping. Treatment by and large does n’t work.40 to 60 % mortality rate may be observed. Nursing attention is more of import than intervention. Animal should be provided adequate bedclothes, diet to eat and clean, fresh H2O to imbibe and alter the sides of cow often ( hourly ) every twenty-four hours to decrease the harm due to force per unit area.
Calving cattles should be observed carefully and instantly treated when first milk febrility marks appear. Calving countries should be clean, unsmooth surfaced to avoid slipping and good bedded. Avoid happening of milk fever as most of the clip this job is aggravated milk febrility instance.
5. Grass Tetany:
It is besides called hypomagnesemic tetanilla, and lactation tetanilla. It is reported to be extremely fatal disease of milch dairy cattles. It is characterized by low Mg degree in blood coupled with hypocalcemia in some instances. Affected animate beings show tonic-colonic muscular cramps and paroxysms along with muscular failing. This failing is similar to that of milk febrilities.
Exuberant grass with high wet content ( wheat or rye ) in the springtime is major cause of this disease. This grass reduces Mg ( Mg ) soaking up. This job can besides happen when concentrations of Mg are low as compared to other minerals.If the loss of Mg in milk, urine, digestive secernments, and perspiration is voluminous, hypomagnesemic tetanilla may happen. This is due to, more loss of Mg than its dietetic consumption.
Earlier marks are similar to milk fever. Other marks include, musculus vellication, grinding of dentitions, exhilaration, paroxysms, and high salivation etc.
It shows more vigorous nervous marks than milk febrility because of Magnesium, being the 2nd most abundant cation in fluids present inside the cells ( to K+ ) and the activator of many nervous system enzymes.These enzymes are likely to do more nervous, excitable symptoms than Ca tetanilla.
Its response towards intervention is speedy and dramatic. Milk febrility and grass tetanilla retrieve both with the same intervention because most “ milk febrility ” interventions contain Mg besides.
Pastures which are to a great extent fertilized ( wheat, sometimes called wheat grazing land poisoning ) have been found involved in this status. Supplement of Magnesium oxide can assist us better this status. Mg should be 0.25 % of entire diet DM.
6. Fat Cow Syndrome:
In early lactation it increases hazard of metabolic, infective, and generative upsets particularly parturient paresis, ketonemia, and retained foetal membranes. It is recognized by the presence of really fat cattles in the dry period and excessively much thin cattles in the early lactation. Feeding patterns which cause over conditioning in dry cattles are the chief cause. In early lactation fat accumulates in liver which is a normal phenomenon. Sometimes excessively much fat gets stored in liver and impairs its map and in few instances leads to liver failure. Such instances by and large do non react to intervention and stop up in the decease of the animate being. In such instances mortality is every bit high as 50 % .
Monitor and pull off organic structure status of dry animate being so that cows reach break uping in proper organic structure status. After break uping, seek to keep high degrees of energy consumption in high bring forthing animate beings. Immediate intervention in early postpartum disease helps to cut down off-feed clip and therefore reduces the energy lack hazard.
7. Displaced Abomasum:
It is fundamentally of two types ; left side DA and right side DA.
Left side DA:
Normal location of fourth stomach is on the right side of the floor of venters. LDA is a motion of the fourth stomach from its normal place to the left side of the venters.It gets located between the left wall of the venters and first stomachs. During 1st month of lactation its incidence is vey high and reaches up to 80 % . A few instances have besides been reported before break uping. Largely, animate beings, that produce milk in really high measure, are the victim of the disease. Incidence is higher in older cattles than in first-calf heifers.
Feeding of grain, in really high measure near break uping and in early lactation, is the chief cause of this job. Corn and maize silage are good illustrations that contribute to its incidence. Grains produce VFAs and diminish the motion of tummy and bowels. If the production of VFAs is really high so some unabsorbed VFAs accumulate in the fourth stomachs and decrease its motion by moving on its smooth musculuss. VFAs are besides produced as a consequence of feeding dressed ores. Feeding excessively much dressed ores increases the flow of ingested provender to abomasum and it gets stored at that place. It causes gas production and rising prices of fourth stomachs which finally consequences in supplanting of fourth stomach. Some people consider birth the chief cause of this job.
It usually occurs within a hebdomad after break uping. Cows go off provender, bead milk production and show marks of ketonemia with normal temperature. Abomasun is seeable from outside in really terrible instances when it is distended excessively much. It appears as a bump on left side under last rib.
Loud “ ping ” by striking over the 9-12th ribs at the same clip and listening the sound with stethoscope above last rib part and flank country can be helpful in diagnosis.Treatment normally requires surgery.
Right-side supplanting of the fourth stomach ( RDA ) and abomasal tortuosity:
Abomasum becomes dilated due to accretion of gas and fluid. Sometimes it leads to writhing of fourth stomachs which resultantly wholly blocks the GIT. Animal feels really terrible abdominal hurting, becomes off provender. This complication has a really high mortality rate. It incidence is really low as compared to LDA but causes are same for both complications. Both of these are different from each other merely in footings of placement of fourth stomachs after supplanting. Their marks are similar so their distinction is really hard clinically. Sometimes dilatation of fourth stomach is seeable on right paralumber pit. And ping can be heard on right side percussion. Immediate surgery is option for intervention. Consequently, maintaining these diseases to a lower limit will help in cut downing the incidence of abomasal supplanting.
Prevention of DA:
Avoid over conditioning of cattles as over conditioning is a likely cause of DA. High dressed ore eating before break uping can do DA, so it should be avoided. it should be plenty to keep organic structure status and ration should incorporate more fiber. If there is less infinite at feeding bunk, overcrowding, trouble in feed entree and animate being is uncomfortable, this can take to less feed consumption, low first stomachs fill, more opportunities of migration to fourth stomachs and finally DA. Physical signifier of provender affairs a batch as excessively little atom size can do DA. Small atom size leads to less masticating which consequences in less first stomachs fill and more GIT motility, and more VFAs production and finally DA. Properly manage other calving-related upsets finally cut down hazard of DA. Sudden dietetic alterations should be avoided as it lead to low provender consumption.
8. Retained placenta:
It is defined as failure to throw out foetal membranes, after birth, because foetal villi ca n’t detach from the carunculas of female parent. Its incidence rate is 10 % .It is reported in literature that cows which give birth to male calf retain placenta for longer clip. Premature birth and certain diseases are considered as lending factors of maintained placenta. Other causes are Vit A and Selinium lack, Cu and Iodine lack. Its return rate is 20 % .Its intervention is done by extract of intrauterine antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Sometimes warm H2O is besides infused intrauterine as it causes the release of prostaglandin and relaxin and release afterbirth. Pre partum injection of Selinium at low doses reduces incidence. Supplement of Selinium and Vit E in lacking countries. Do n’t do Vit A and fiber lack. Avoid over conditioning.
Management non the intervention is the ultimate solution of metabolic upsets. Dry period direction is the critical 1 in this respect. Attempts should be made to fix carnal to confront critical period after birth. As feed consumption is reduced to about 30 % , so seek to maximise feed consumption in early lactation. In other words increase DM intake. Adopt preventative and contraceptive steps to avoid incidence of any metabolic upset. Give glucose precursors to forestall from ketonemia. Combat -ve energy balance period and seek to convey the animate being in +ve energy balance. Supply -ve DCAD diet to avoid milk febrility. Monitor and keep organic structure mark around 3.5.Avoid feeding excessively all right atom size diet as it may take to reduced GIT motility and displaced fourth stomach. Do n’t feed heavy grains and dressed ores in dry period. Provide balanced rations for protein and energy both. Avoid disconnected dietetic alterations without proper first stomachs readying.