Investigation Of Influenza A H1n1 Epidemiology Biology Essay

Due to the recent forms of its spread amongst worlds, Influenza H1N1 normally called swine grippe, raised concerns of organisations like the World Health Organization ( WHO ) and has resulted in look intoing into the controls and inoculations that can be used to forestall and cut down morbidity rates that are a consequence of the spread of swine grippe. In this paper will reexamine the epidemiology of swine grippe an besides discuss whether or non inoculations are the best bar schemes for this disease in visible radiation of the many control steps that are available to the population like facemasks, N95 inhalators, hygiene, etc. The paper will besides foreground how the betterments in the surveillance and control steps have influenced the direction of this pandemic.


Influenza is an acute respiratory disease caused by grippe viruses, known to be one of the most common cause of infective disease in worlds ( Zimmer and Burke, 2009 ) and responsible for serious respiratory unwellness and deceases over the past 100 old ages ( Khanna et al. , 2009 ) .

Because of its ability to invariably accommodate through antigenic impetuss and displacements severally, influenza viruses frequently result in epidemics ( e.g. seasonal grippe caused by grippe B viruses ) or pandemics ( e.g. swine grippe caused by Influenza A/H1N1 virus ) ( WHO, 2009 ) .

Influenza pandemics occur when a new strain of grippe A virus, that has ne’er circulated in worlds before, appears and to which the population has really small or no unsusceptibility against it ( WHO 2009 ) . Therefore, it causes serious unwellness and spreads easy from individual to individual as most people are susceptible.

Since mid March/April 2009, a new grippe A/H1N1 virus has been identified foremost in Mexico and the USA and so has spread quickly across the Earth ( Fraser et al. , 2009 ) . On June 11, 2009, by the clip the World Health Organization ( WHO ) had declared swine grippe as pandemic, 74 states and districts had confirmed laboratory infections. As of 28 February 2010, more than 213 states reported research lab confirmed instances of pandemic grippe H1N1 2009, including at least 16455 deceases worldwide ( WHO, 2009 ) .

Last century, 3 grippe pandemics ( 1918, 1957 and 1968 ) took topographic point with 1000000s of deceases all around the universe as a effect ( Kiely et al. , 2009 ) . Influenza pandemics are events that occur from clip to clip and are for that ground a lasting menace to worlds. Even though this new grippe A/H1N1 virus has been proved to be comparatively mild, because all viruses can mutate and go more powerful, to halt the spread of the virus is a public wellness precedence ( Bronze and Wolf, 2010 ) .

To understand how influenza H1N1 is transmitted and why it is doing unwellness and deceases in worlds, it is of import to reexamine its aetiology and look into its epidemiology. This will let a better apprehension of the disease, take action against the pandemic and trade with the transmittal and control of influenza H1N1.

Besides, as readiness is important in order to react to future influenza eruptions, it is indispensable to critically measure the different control steps ( facemasks, school closing and mass assemblages, hygiene and instruction ) developed against this pandemic and its development to the release of the vaccinum.

Background history

Swine grippe is a extremely contagious respiratory disease caused by grippe A viruses, which normally occur in hogs. Direct transmittal to worlds is rare ; nevertheless, the swine grippe virus can be transmitted to worlds via contact with septic hogs as they are candidate for familial reassortment ( between avian, swine and worlds flu viruses ) and/or contaminated environments ( CDC, H1N1 grippe ) .

In 1918, the first grippe A/H1N1 pandemic associated with a virus of swine grippe beginning, implicated as a human pathogen, reported about 500 1000000s of instances worldwide and about 20 to 50 million deceases ( WHO, 2009 ) .

At the clip of Spanish grippe ( 1918 pandemic ) , scientist did non hold an thought of what was doing the disease, there were no vaccinums nor any interventions such as antivirals against the virus and the intensive attention installations were really restricted. The cause of human grippe and its links to avian and swine grippe was non understood. It was merely in 1930 that the virus has been isolated from swine and worlds.

1918 influenza pandemic was more deadly than seasonal grippe and the mortality rate was besides remarkably high in immature strong healthy people.

The 1918 pandemic was non the merely stray event of the twentieth century, the 1957 pandemic ( Asiatic grippe H2N2 ) with 2 1000000s of deceases and the 1968 pandemic ( Hong Kong H3N2 ) with 1 million of deceases ( Zimmer and Burke, 2009 ) . Because grippe pandemics introduced the outgrowth of a wholly new strain of grippe A virus, the population is left with no unsusceptibility and the virus spread really rapidly. Therefore, influenza eruptions should non be taken lightly as it can kill 1000000s and extenuating its consequence is a public wellness precedence ( Fraser et al. , 2009 ) .

Current H1N1 pandemic

On June 11, 2009, due the spread of the virus and non to the badness of the disease, the WHO declared that a new grippe A/H1N1 pandemic was underway with more than 70 states describing instances of new grippe A ( H1N1 ) infection and eruptions of influenza H1N1 in multiple parts of the universe. The virus is transmitted easy from individual to individual via droplets and little atoms produced when septic people cough or sneeze or by touching septic surfaces ( Vaque Rafart et al. , 2009 ) .

Swine grippe is comparatively mild. Normally most septic people recover within one to two hebdomads without necessitating intensive medical intervention. Swine grippe is characterized by grippes like symptoms with sudden oncoming of high febrility, hurting musculuss, concern, terrible unease, weariness and sometimes diarrhoea and purging. However, in the really immature, the aged, pregnant adult females and those with other serious medical conditions, infection can take to terrible complications of the implicit in status, pneumonia and/or even decease. Treatment with antivirals such are Tamiflu and Relenza which act as neuraminidase inhibitors, is available but most people are encouraged to remain at place for a hebdomad and until 24hours after the symptoms have resolved ( NHS, conditions on pandemic grippe ) .

Influenza H1N1 morbidity is high but mortality rates are low 1 % -4 % ( GAR, 2009 ) . However protect the susceptible in our population is still a necessity.

Control steps

It is common cognition that inoculation is the best manner to contend against infective diseases. However, at the clip the pandemic was declared, no vaccinum was yet available. Therefore in order to cut down the impact of swine grippe pandemic, reinforce health care and public wellness steps and instruction was indispensable in order to detain the spread of infection. Some illustrations of these are:

Use of facemask and N95 inhalators in the Healthcare/hospital scene

In the health care, where hygiene and safeguard are portion of their day-to-day actions ( particular apparels, protective spectacless, baseball mitts etc. ) as workers are exposed to patients with serious chronic conditions, it is of import that they could protect themselves and patients who are at higher hazard of complications from people infected with the H1N1 virus and avoid farther taint ( Hajjar et al. , 2009 ) .

The usage of facemask is utile in protecting the person ‘s respiratory system from big atoms and big droplets nevertheless it wo n’t be ever able to filtrate and barricade the smaller atoms in the air because it is a slackly covering of the face. These smaller atoms are chiefly air droplets and include sources that can be transferred from coughs or sneezings or different medical procedures. An N95 inhalator on the other manus has a really close-fit to the face and can barricade smaller atoms as good. Furthermore it besides helps filter whatever smaller particles the person could inhale organize the environing air. However, for the N95 inhalator to work decently, it has to be a perfect close-fitting to the face as any spreads will let air atoms to go through through unfiltered ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009 ) .

Public wellness steps

The eruption of the swine grippe pandemic in some states ( e.g. Australia ) resulted in the induction and care of unopen downs of school and rigorous quarantining in order to curtail and incorporate the pandemic spread. However, school closing is socially riotous as it obliged carers to take clip off work and kids ‘s instruction stopped. Hence, kids are at the same hazard of acquiring infected outside their schools as the pandemic is widespread, so that statements for its effectivity have non been proved. Entire school closing is non necessary but category closing might be considered ( WER, 2009 ) . Furthermore, many of the athleticss and amusement events were postponed or cancelled ( e.g. Mexico in May 2009 ) . This line of action was thought necessary as the per centums of the swine grippe instances was expected to increase due to the winter season being close. But societal distancing and limitations on mass assemblages had non been instituted by the WHO as people could besides be really easy infected in closed countries ( public conveyance etc. ) every bit good if attention was n’t taken ( WER, 2009 ) .

Public instruction

Alternatively Governments guidelines were to give the population accurate information on the pandemic state of affairs and supply tips on how to forestall spread and persons from acquiring infected. In the UK, the National Health Service sent out cusps and presentments to every family about general facts about swine grippe, safeguards that need to be taken if and when symptoms are detected at place or in the office to decelerate down rate of infection and advices on how non to acquire infected ( Hajjar et al. , 2009 )

Different agencies were used such as postings and marks, adverts, picture cartridge holders, and abruptly animated movies for kids etc. in order to make and educate the whole population ( e.g. pictures on ) on the simple activities that can be hammered onto everyone ‘s day-to-day lives ( HPA, swine grippe ) .

This includes:

Avoid close contact with ill infected

Cover olfactory organ and oral cavity with a tissue when cough or sneezing and bin it

Regular manus rinsing with soap and H2O or alcohol-based solutions

Stay at place if ill for 7 yearss and until 24 hours one time symptom free

Improved hygiene in workplace and family


When all these steps helped to decelerate down the pandemic, it did non eliminate the virus and halt its spread.

In late October 2009, the 2009 grippe A/H1N1 vaccinum was released and made foremost available to the at hazard group for complications from H1N1 infection and subsequently to the remainder of the population ( NHS, Information on swine grippe vaccinum ) .

Inoculation is known to be the best manner to contend viral infection as it will forestall people to acquire infected in the first topographic point and enable to accomplish herd unsusceptibility. It will non merely forestall an person from acquiring ill but avoid him to distribute the virus to person else. However, merely a really little portion of the population is a acquiring the vaccinum ( Franco-Paredes et al. , 2009 )

Despite all these facts, a diminution in influenza H1N1 pandemic activity is now being observed. Is this the ground why inoculation consumption is low? Is inoculation still necessary against this H1N1 pandemic? What could be the effects of inoculation low consumption?

In order to research the public perceptual experience on swine grippe and inoculation consumption, the pupil decided to carry on an online questionnaire.

Questionnaire Methodology


244 respondents among university pupils and staff, alumnuss, and households in Kingston, were asked to finish an online questionnaire in order to measure their degree of information and perceptual experience about swine grippe pandemic and vaccinum.


This questionnaire comprised a set of closed, open-ended and multiple pick format inquiries and consisted of 18 inquiries.

In the first portion of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to give their age, gender and business. These are of import factors to be considered as they will drive some of their replies, sentiments and might explicate some of the determinations they made and will non be a true contemplation of the populationa╦ć┬Ž Therefore need these factors are indispensable to admit any possible prejudices or abnormalities ensuing from gender, age, educational degree, and etc. if applicable.

The 2nd portion of the questionnaire consisted of generic inquiries about swine in order to measure their degree of information ( what is swine grippe? What are the marks and symptoms? Are you cognizant of the different intervention available? If yes name them. How can you forestall yourself from acquiring infected and avoid the spread to others?

In the 3nd portion of the questionnaire, participants were asked whether or non they have been vaccinated and to give a ground for their replies and if they agree that inoculation was the best manner to contend the pandemic ( best bar ) , and if they fought that inoculation was still necessary as pandemic activity is low.

For the 2nd and 3rd portion of the questionnaire, respondents were asked to give their beginning of information.


The online questionnaire had a response rate of 20.49 % ( n=50 ) . The participants are composed of 68 % ( n=34 ) pupils or new alumnuss with 41.17 % of the pupils in medical related surveies ( n=14 ) ; and non pupils 32 % ( n=16 ) with 25 % of them ( n=4 ) working in medical related field.

66 % of the population ( n=33 ) was in the 18-24 age group, 30 % ( n=15 ) in the 25-34 age group and 4 % ( n=2 ) in the 45-59 age group ; and72 % ( n=36 ) are females against 28 % ( n=14 ) males.

All participants confirmed that they have heard about grippe H1N1 and 90 % ( n=45 ) of them were able to give a brief account of the pandemic, marks and symptoms of the disease. 72 % ( n=36 ) were cognizant of the different interventions available particularly Tamiflu and advices in remaining at place in the instance they were infected.

All participants were able to mention at least one manner of forestalling themselves from acquiring the virus and avoid farther spread. All participants were cognizant of the importance of personal hygiene when coughing or sneeze, the usage of manus intoxicant gels and did reference “ Catch it, Bin it, kill it ” several times. Merely 26 % ( n=13 ) mentioned inoculation and 14 % ( n=7 ) did mention school closing, mass assemblages limitation and quarantine.

8 % ( n=4 ) said that they had no information about the new H1N1 vaccinum. 30 % ( n=15 ) stated that they had deficient information. 50 % ( n=25 ) affirmed that they have sufficient information about the H1N1 vaccinum and 12 % ( n=6 ) said that they had a really good degree of information on pandemic grippe A/H1N1 vaccinum.

However, merely 14 % ( n=7 ) of the participants have been vaccinated, due to bing implicit in conditions, working in the health care or being exposed to susceptible such as kids.

The 86 % ( n=43 ) of non vaccinated participants merely 12.2 % ( n=5 ) are sing inoculation in the hereafter. The grounds for the 87.8 % ( n=36 ) of the participants for non sing inoculation in the hereafter are:

33 % ( n=17 ) do non see themselves at hazard of serious unwellness

21.6 % ( n=11 ) do non see this pandemic as a menace as its activity has declined

13.7 % ( n=7 ) have frights about the vaccinum safety

13.7 % ( n=7 ) have other grounds. They already had swine grippe or did non make up one’s mind yet.

9.8 % ( n=5 ) would instead acquire septic and use alternate drugs as the pandemic is comparatively mild and lone causes influenza like unwellness

7.8 % ( n=4 ) do non hold clip

60 % ( n=30 ) of the participants got their information on swine grippe and vaccinum from the media and internet resources.

48 % ( n= 24 ) merely think that now that pandemic activity is low, the vaccinum is non necessary any longer.

42 % ( n=21 ) stated that the virus responsible for this H1N1 pandemic is still out at that place and that inoculation should go on merely for those at hazard of acquiring serious complication.

10 % ( n=5 ) said that it was perfectly important as it is the lone manner to halt the pandemic


The consequences from the questionnaire shows that most of the population is non acquiring vaccinated as they believe that due to the mild behavior of the pandemic, they are non at hazard of serious unwellness, and now that pandemic is deceasing off. Despite their good degree of information on grippe H1N1, they lack to understand that inoculation is non about protecting themselves entirely but the whole population particularly the 1s who are susceptible. It is right that most of them are non at serious hazard of complications and hence acquiring infected will non hold serious wellness issues as the disease is self limited, but they would infect others and lend to the spread of the disease alternatively of halting it. Low inoculation consumption in infective disease could be lead to the re-emergence of the virus ( e.g. rubeolas and MMR vaccinum )

The current low consumption of the MMR vaccinum in some parts of the UK has raised concerns about the return of rubeolas outbreak among primary school kids entrants ( The wellness boards executive, MMR vaccinum treatment battalion ) . This was due to the negative media coverage about the vaccinum. These concerns contributed to a lessening in the consumption of the MMR vaccinum and the re-emergence of the disease in the population with kids developing complications such as meningitis, pneumonia, etc. ( Euro surveillance, 1999 and HPA ) when this could hold been avoided.


2009 Influenza H1N1 pandemic has non been lifelessly as chiefly thought and was comparatively mild compared to the old pandemics. Even though the pandemic did non do 1000000s of deceases, the pandemic response was still appropriate as it was foremost hard to measure the virulency and impact of the virus on the population. The authorities readiness to the pandemic was greater than of 1918 pandemic for illustration, demoing a better apprehension and direction of the disease. However, the ground for a smooth direction of this pandemic is largely due to the fact that the virus was merely doing really mild disease unlike H5N1 otherwise the scenario would hold been wholly different and the emphasis for vaccinum production would hold been greater. This pandemic was an chance to educate the populace about influenza epidemics and pandemic, simple safeguards to avoid taint and spread, and besides helped to increase the consumption of seasonal grippe. However, inoculation low consumption could be a major concern for future eruptions as it might be that people do non understand the primary ground and benefit of immunization which is to make herd unsusceptibility.


Further surveies need to be done in order to happen the ground for low inoculation consumption and the communicating between the authoritiess and the media about vaccinum safety demand to be improved.

The production of a vaccinum against grippe A viruses need to be quickened in order to react more quickly to future influenza eruptions and hence diagnosing and isolation of the virus strain should be improved.

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