In The UK A Brownfield Site Architecture Essay

Recently brownfield sites have become popular due to the serious lack in the figure of greenfield infinites on manus for development. This is more outstanding in the built up countries where the demand for residential and commercial belongings is elevated.

In 2008 the UK set a mark for brownfield developments. 60 % of all new houses were to be built on brownfield sites. Records show that we have already exceeded that mark and with the rate that we are repossessing brownfield sites at present we should significantly raise that per centum over the coming decennary.

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The utilizations for brownfield sites are non restricted to residential and commercial edifices. They are frequently considered for renovation into unfastened infinites for diversion, forest and assorted other community related countries.

Reclaiming brownfield sites is at the bosom of the UK Sustainable Development Strategy. This “ Development Strategy ” incorporates an extended aggregation of economic, societal and environmental aims. Brownfield renovation cleans up environmental wellness jeopardies and eyesores and in making so it promotes community growing and regeneration.

Managed efficaciously as a sustainable renovation strategy, Brownfield sites provide low-cost lodging, promote economic growing through locally sourced stuffs fostering local concern ‘ and trades, protect local wildlife and supply environmentally safe countries for households to bask.

Furthermore, renovation of brownfield sites can give an country a make-over and can assist direct a message to the vicinity bespeaking the importance of saving and recycling.

2.0 Brownfield Land Redevelopment Steps

Now that the land has been chosen for the proposed development, a big athleticss Centre within a little town in Scotland, it is of import to set up whether or non the Brownfield site in inquiry is suited for such a development.

The proposed site will affect the destruction of an bing edifice. Therefore all planning Torahs must be adhered to and the local planning governments must be notified in composing sketching the purposes for the proposed site. This is of import as particular licenses are required to repossess Brownfield sites.

There are a figure of trials and surveies that must be carried out in order to obtain the needed information to find the extent of the decontamination steps required to fix the site.

2.1 Demolition and Recycling Existing Building On-Site

In order to maximize the sustainability of the development it is of import to place, separate and extinguish all risky stuffs from the dismantled waste. Furthermore any recyclables such as masonry debris and other stuffs should be extracted from the destruction waste and can be used in the concrete / asphalt or paved countries around the site. This promotes sustainable development by lending to the authorities sustainability aims of prudent usage of natural resources and protection of the environment. Using low embodied edifice stuffs reduces the CO2 emanations during the building procedure and besides has a positive consequence on the cost of the full undertaking as less waste is sent to expensive landfill.

There are a figure of companies within the UK that specialise in building and destruction waste recycling and disposal. These companies work closely with “ Site Waste Management Plans ” guaranting that merely risky stuffs are disposed of and everything recyclable is reused.

2.2 Designation of Hazardous Materials

A big figure of stuffs are involved in any physique, hence, when a edifice is being demolished it is of import to place these risky stuffs and dispose of them safely so that they do non go a danger to anybody else in the hereafter.

The edifice on the proposed site is a 150 twelvemonth old derelict masonry edifice. The bing edifice is to be demolished and any suited recyclables are to be used in building the new athleticss Centre and any concrete / asphalt or paved countries around the site. In order to place the assorted stuffs it is of import to set a sorting program in topographic point. This will guarantee merely reclaimable stuffs get reused and all risky stuffs are disposed of suitably.

The history of the edifice plays a cardinal portion in the types of risky stuffs that can be expected to be found within the edifice. From the period the edifice was built a appropriately qualified professional can reason that the edifice shell itself will lend assorted risky stuffs to the list for safe disposal. These are likely to include asbestos, insularity stuffs, froths incorporating CFC ‘s ( Chlorofluorocarbons ) that are harmful to the O-Zone bed, roofing felts and bitumen.

An applied scientist will besides look into the infinite within the edifice to find what risky stuffs may hold been associated with the assorted utilizations of the edifice. The derelict edifice in inquiry was originally used as a fabric mill and subsequently a furniture mill. This would bespeak that risky stuffs such as varnishes, gums, sealers, resin-based floorings and wood treated with chemicals or preservatives may be present from that period of the edifices life-time. In recent decennaries the edifice was used as a truck fix store. This might propose that there may be some taint from oil or lubricators, crude oil and any spillage from auto / truck batteries.

It is really of import to prove for the presence of these substances and more as placing the presence of risky stuff is the first measure to decontaminating the site.

2.3 Further Probe

Following probe into the edifice to be demolished, trials must be carried out on the status of the dirt around the site. It is of import to observe that all Brownfield site renovations come manus in manus with rigorous environmental issues. As a consequence it is recommended that an suitably experient environmental adviser is used. The environmental adviser will hold background cognition of Brownfield developments and will adequately look into any environmental hazards.

First they will set about a desk top reappraisal of the proposed site by garnering all historical information available. This may associate to former quarrying or landfill in the country. Second they will fix an environmental assessment study. Contained within this study will be the consequences from extended proving for risky compounds within the dirt, land H2O and surface H2O.

If the findings of the study are positive and support renovation on the site, the following measure is redress and riddance of risky stuffs.

2.4 Remediation / Elimination of Hazardous Materials

Now that the assorted risky stuffs have been identified, it is clip to categorise and split them so that they can be safely disposed of. This is what ‘s known as redress.

The destruction of the edifice itself should be the concluding measure when uncluttering the site. Initially the edifice should be stripped down with careful consideration given to how each stuff is classed and whether it can be recycled or disposed of. This includes all loose stuff, fixtures, adjustments, Windowss, doors, warming and electrical systems and roofing. Once this has been categorized and divided all that should be left is the edifice skeleton and foundations for safe destruction

Up until a few old ages ago redress of Brownfield sites was an expensive procedure. However, recent new redress engineerings have emerged and are cheaper than the more traditional methods. They include:

  • Bioremediation – This utilises the natural procedures of autochthonal bacteriums, micro-organisms, workss, enzymes and Fungis to destruct or neutralize toxins and contaminations.
  • Phytoremediation – This procedure uses workss. The can hive away contaminations in their foliages and roots ( bioaccumulation ) . Some contaminations such as heavy metals can be harvested and mined for reuse ( phytomining ) .
  • In-situ Chemical Oxidation – This procedure injects O or chemical oxidizers into the contaminated dirt or H2O to destruct harmful compounds.

2.5 Recycling Masonry Rubble

With a undertaking like this there is serious demand for concrete / asphalt and pavings around the development. Fortunately with the destruction of the bing derelict masonry edifice, a batch of the demands can be met utilizing recycled masonry debris from the bing edifice.

When utilizing recycled masonry debris from destructions such as this it is of import to guarantee that the debris is free from contaminations. Once this is done, the debris is so graded into sums. This is a simple procedure that involves sieve like machines that vibrate, dividing the assorted sized sums and roll uping them with aggregative stuff of similar sizes. The sums can so be used in assorted locations around the site depending on their size and categorization.

It is of import to observe that the quality of recycled masonry rubble meets the demand for usage in building roads. Strenuous proving and categorising is required on the sums that are intended for concrete usage within the edifice in order to guarantee the consistence is sufficient. Lightweight sum does non run into demands for usage as a secondary concrete sum as the bulk of masonry stuffs are excessively soft and will adversely impact the strength of concrete merchandises.

2.6 Access Roads and Pavements

The bing edifice will hold a figure of entree roads already in topographic point. These roads will hold to be excavated and in maintaining with the sustainable design of the proposed edifice and usage of recycle stuffs in the new physique it is merely suiting that the excavated asphalt should besides be recycled and form portion of the new entree roads and pavings around the site. The industry of asphalt it a really energy expensive procedure as the stuffs involved must be heated to really high temperatures in order to blend together. Therefore, the usage of recycled asphalt for route toppings around the site will hold a cost benefit to the undertaking every bit good as a positive impact on the environment.

3.0 Proposed Sports Centre Complex

The proposed athleticss Centre will be built utilizing low embodied, recycled stuffs where possible paying peculiar attending to the energy public presentation of the edifice. The edifice design will take inactive solar warming into consideration with cleverly positioned Windowss and landscaping throughout the site supplying equal shelter from the elements during the winter months.

Sourcing stuffs locally cuts down on conveyance costs over big distances. This automatically reduces C emanations and besides supports the local industry guaranting occupations and community growing. This will be a cardinal constituent in the sustainable edifice of the proposed athleticss Centre.

3.1 Foundations

The best foundation for the proposed athleticss Centre is a raft foundation. Due to the size and graduated table of the proposed physique a raft foundation will let the weight of the edifice to be transferred to the land over a greater country and besides provide a degree surface for which to construct upon. It is of import that there is equal steel support in the concrete to battle land motion.

When the recycled masonry debris is graded into sums, some of these sums will be suited for usage in the concrete raft foundation. Recycled concrete sums can replace up to 20 % of virgin sum in concrete within the commissariats set out in BS 8500-2.

3.2 Structural Framing / Building Skeleton

The most efficient manner to construct the proposed athleticss Centre edifice is utilizing a steel framed building. The steel construction would run into the spacial demands of the chief athleticss hall, high ceilings with long spans and column free infinite to suit an indoor football pitch or hoops tribunal. Recycled steel would be appropriate here as steel can be used infinite times with no negative affects to its strength or public presentation.

3.3 Wall Build-Up

Once the foundations and steel construction are in topographic point it is clip to believe about the external wall construct up. Given the intended usage of the athleticss hall it is of import to utilize a stuff that will non merely be sustainable in its building and difficult erosion but besides have an acoustic quality as the noise generated within the athleticss hall when it ‘s occupied will be of an elevated nature and could interrupt the environing populace.

There is a broad array of merchandises available such as concrete blocks with 50 % coarse sums replaced with plastic while still supplying equal strenght but all things considered, I would propose an aerated concrete block. These are among the most environmentally friendly edifice merchandises available. They are formed from recycled stuffs. One of which is Pulverised Fuel Ash ( PFA ) , this is an ineluctable byproduct of the coal-burning power coevals procedure which is usually stockpiled in immense unsightly hills or is dumped at sea. Further heightening the sustainability of this merchandise is the fact that no stuff goes to blow, anything left over when a batch is made automatically goes into the following mix. Besides due to the lightweight of the stuff, more can be loaded onto a individual lorry cut downing the CO2 emanations produced in conveyance and rushing up building.

The pit should be 100mm partly filled with natural wool insularity or a similar sanctioned natural insularity or recycled insularity system. The external face of the edifice should be clad with recycled bricks tied back to the internal foliage with acoustically approved wall ties.

3.4 Floor Build-Up

Each country of the athleticss Centre will necessitate a different finish depending on the proposed usage. The response for case will necessitate to supply a warm and welcoming atmosphere, this can be achieved utilizing rug. Recycled rug is available, this is formed from recycled stuff such as plastic, wool, cotton or nylon and laid on a recycled gum elastic carpet pad. The gum elastic could be derived from any scrap Surs staying on the site from the truck fix store.

The changing suites will necessitate a difficult floor which is imperviable to H2O. Many green options are available such as recycled ceramic floor tiles and eco-friendly gum elastic floor tiles. A survey should be undertaken of the concern ‘ in the country in order to make up one’s mind which stuff is easiest to obtain with the chase of sustainability in head.

If there is a prey nearby it might be an thought to look into rock as a possible stuff for the flooring in difficult have oning countries. Stone has a natural, dateless beauty and a feeling of solid quality which is difficult to fit with any other type of stuff. Unfortunately due to the costs associated with rock it may non be a plausible stuff as it is by no means the cheapest type of shocking to put in or keep.

The flooring in the athleticss hall is a specific type of shocking stuff. It has a figure of functional demands associated with it. It must be lasting, smooth and somewhat soft to forestall serious hurt. An ideal surface therefore, would be a gum elastic based surface which can be formed from any bit tyres found on the site. This is a cost good procedure as it is a sustainable usage for the waste gum elastic intending it is non necessary to pay for the safe disposal of the fresh Surs. The recycled gum elastic surface should so sit on some stiff insularity such as woodwool, mineral./rock wool or expanded or extruded polystyrene to increase the thermic public presentation.

3.5 Roof Construction

For the proposed athletics Centre I would propose a green roof. A ‘Green Roof ‘ is a roof that has a vegetated covering planted over a waterproofing membrane. The roof consists of assorted beds, each with its ain map. The assorted beds cater for drainage, wet, root protection and filtering.

Green roofs have many benefits over traditional or conventional roofs. They offer a longer roof life span, increased acoustic public presentation, improved thermic public presentation in the winter and heat shielding in the summer and as they are populating organisms they retain and store 90 % of rain and storm H2O and return it to the ambiance by agencies of vaporization.

3.6 Energy Performance of the Building

A cardinal characteristic of this edifice is the inordinate usage of recycled and sustainable stuffs in the building. This has a positive consequence on the environment guaranting minimum CO2 emanations are generated in the industry of the stuffs. This is an admirable pattern and it sends a clear message to developers that the usage of recyclables can hold good executions for both the undertaking budget and besides the environment.

It is of import to keep this aim throughout the edifices life-time. This can be done by implementing micro renewable engineerings during the building procedure. A edifice of this graduated table is frequently associated with big energy measures. With the monetary values of oil escalating and the UK ‘s dependence on fossil fuels at a extremum, it is critical that this edifice incorporates as many micro renewable engineerings as possible in order to drive the running costs down to a manageable degree.

I would strongly propose the usage of solar photovoltaic cells ( PV ) and wind turbines to bring forth electricity along with wood fuelled boilers ( biomass ) connected to a cardinal warming system as the most relevant micro coevals engineerings that a edifice of this nature could profit from.

4.0 Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

4.1 Introduction to Suds

Sustainable urban drainage systems are a new environmentally friendly manner of covering with surface H2O run-off. Traditional drainage strategies lead to deluging, cause pollution and are by and large more expensive to put in. Surface H2O no longer has the chance to soak into the land, alternatively it is collected in a web of pipes along with any contaminations such as oil, solid affair or toxic metals it may pick up along the manner and it is discharged into the nearest rivers or watercourses.

Sustainable urban drainage systems replicate natural drainage methods. Water run-off is collected and stored to let natural cleansing to happen prior to infiltration or controlled release to watercourses. As a consequence they prevent pollution, control implosion therapy, recharge land H2O in the natural H2O tabular array and heighten the environment.

There are for chief design options. These are:

  • Filter Strips and Swales
  • Filter Drains and Permeable Surfaces
  • Infiltration Devicess
  • Basins and Ponds

It is of import to observe that depending on the needed public presentation of the sustainable urban drainage system, a combination of two or more design options may necessitate to be incorporated in order to accomplish a suited drainage solution.

4.2 Filter Strips and Swales

Filter strips and swales are vegetated surface characteristics that drain H2O equally off impermeable countries. Swales are long shallow channels whilst filter strips are gently inclining countries of land.

4.3 Filter Drains and Permeable Surfaces

Filter drains and permeable surfaces are devices that have a volume of permeable stuff below land to hive away surface H2O. Water run-off flows to a storage country via a permeable surface such as gravelled paving countries or solid pavement blocks with spreads between the single units. When the H2O falls it passes through the surface to the permeable fill in the filter drain. This so allows the storage, intervention, conveyance and infiltration of the H2O ensuing in clean uncontaminated H2O being returned to land.

4.4 Infiltration Devicess

Infiltration devices drain H2O straight into the land. They may be used either at beginning or instead the overflow can be conveyed in a pipe or swale to the infiltration country. They include soakaways, infiltration trenches and infiltration basins every bit good as swales, filter drains and pools. Infiltration devices can be integrated into and organize portion of the landscaped countries.

4.5 Basins and Ponds

Basins and pools store H2O at the land surface, either as impermanent implosion therapy of dry basins and inundation fields, or lasting pools. These constructions can be designed to pull off H2O measure and quality.

4.6 Benefits of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems

There are a figure of benefits to put ining a sustainable drainage system as opposed to a traditional / conventional system. For illustration the cost of linking to ramp cloacas and public drains is avoided and care is simple and inexpensive. Care can be carried out by landscaping contractors without the demand of skilled applied scientists and heavy machinery. When clean filtrated H2O is distributed back to the site it gives the natural flora a opportunity to boom and can make a really pleasant environment for everyone to bask.

4.7 Proposed Sustainable Urban Drainage System

A athleticss Centre will necessitate a figure of difficult surfaces to provide for auto parking. I would propose utilizing solid pavement blocks for the surface in the auto parking countries. A spread must be left between each block leting H2O to filtrate through to an under the surface storage drain which runs to a designated country such as a vegetated or green country. This rainfall run-off safeguard must be implemented in the initial design phase.

I would besides propose soak holes / soakaways around the site to filtrate any H2O collected in downpipes around the edifice. With the current clime that we live in it has to be expected that significant rain will fall each twelvemonth. As such, a well designed sustainable drainage system can understate implosion therapy and any incommodiousness that may be caused during times of high rain autumn.

5.0 Decision

The purpose of the brief for this study was to critically analyse and measure the possibilities of renovation on a brownfield site with the destruction of an bing derelict masonry industrial edifice and the building of a new athleticss Centre using as many of the recycled stuffs from the destruction as possible.

I approached this undertaking somewhat blind with my basic cognition of brownfield renovation. After researching the subject further I discovered all the environmental benefits environing brownfield renovation. With the worsening handiness of greenfield sites and the turning demand for lodging and community growing, brownfield renovation has got to be at the top of the list where possible in order to continue what natural countries are left. Furthermore edifice on brownfield sites removes unsightly and frequently unsafe creaky edifices and gives local countries a opportunity to renew and make a new image.

Decontaminating brownfield sites in a specialized undertaking but the remotion of risky stuffs makes it a safer environment for all concerned. Fortunately new techniques for redress of contaminated sites have made it cheaper. This can be appetising for possible developers looking to spread out their belongings portfolio and as a consequence it can hold a knock on consequence within a community bring forthing occupations and concern for local trade.

The brief stated that stuffs from the destruction of the bing masonry industrial edifice must be recycled and used in the building of the new athletics Centre. When the list of stuffs that could be recycled in the bing edifice was broken down, it was found that about everything could lend in some manner to the new physique. This impacts on the budget for the undertaking and in maintaining with the UK ‘s C emanation decrease marks later cuts down on any CO2 emanations that would hold been produced in the industry of virgin stuff.

The usage of micro-technologies would suit in good with the overall thought of a athleticss Centre as in my sentiment a athleticss Centre implies wellness and wellbeing which can be related back to the footings “ clean ” and “ green energy ” associated with these methods and the environment.

The execution of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems permits the safe return of clean irrigated H2O back to the dirt. The benefits of cost and minimum care entirely speak for themselves. With four chief design options available I feel it is of import to include at least one system as a drainage solution on sites such as this within little towns in order to continue the local wildlife and let flora to boom free from H2O pollution.

All in all I feel that this undertaking were it to be undertake would be really executable. Most of the costs for would come from decontaminating the site. The physique itself would turn out to be cheaper with recycled stuffs already available on-site and given the nature of the proposed athleticss Centre I would non anticipate any issues with the local community as it will supply a safe location for kids and grownups likewise to hang out. The sustainable nature of the proposed physique besides indicates that this edifice is encompassing programs to travel frontward into a greener hereafter and it may put a case in point for future green development within the country.

6.0 Mentions

  • Brown, G. , ( 24th September 2007 ) . Gordon Browns First Speech to the Labour Conference as Party Leader. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7010664.stm [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Biomass. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/micro/biomass/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Ground Source Heat Pumps. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/micro/ground/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Solar PV. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/micro/solarpv/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Solar Hot Water. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/micro/solartherm/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Small Scale Hydro. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/micro/hydro/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department of Energy and Climate Change. Low Carbon Building Program, Wind Turbines. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lowcarbonbuildings.org.uk/micro/wind/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs. The Environment – Waste and Recycling – What Happens to Waste – Construction Waste. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.defra.gov.uk/environment/waste/topics/construction/ [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Kelly, R. , ( 13th September 2006 ) . “ Zero-Carbon ” Homes Plan Unveiled. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6176229.stm [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Lomas, J. , ( 13th December 2007 ) . Public Service Review: Transport, Local Government and The Regions – Issue 11. Making Zero-Carbon Communities. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.publicservice.co.uk/article.asp? publication=Transport, % 20Local % 20Government % 20and % 20the % 20Regions & A ; id=293 & A ; content_name=Social % 20Housing % 20and % 20Construction % 20incorporating % 20The % 20Carbon % 20Challenge & A ; article=8879 [ Accessed twenties September 2009 ]
  • Lomas, J. , ( 13th December 2007 ) . Public Service Review: Cardinal Government – Issue 15. Meeting the Challenge. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.publicservice.co.uk/article.asp? publication=Central % 20Government & A ; id=287 & A ; content_name=Sustainable % 20Housing % 20and % 20Regeneration & A ; article=8680 [ Accessed twenties September 2009 ]
  • New Forest Passage, ( October 2009 ) . Interesting in Generating Your Own Energy? . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.newforesttransition.org/index.php? /archives/2009/10/12.html [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]
  • Sheffield City Council. Sustainable Housing – Code For Sustainable Homes. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sheffield.gov.uk/ ? pgid=67894 & A ; fs=b [ Accessed twenties September 2009 ]
  • Sustainable Build. Types of Construction, Wood Frame Construction. Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/ConstructionWoodFrame.html [ Accessed twenty September 2009 ]