Hazards of Working in a Laboratory Essay

1. Recognize that there are at least 4 classs of jeopardies when working in a research lab. List the four classs and name at least one illustration of each ( that you might counter in the lab ) .

Type of Laboratory Hazards


Physical and Environment


Prolonged standing at laboratory benches or goons, pipetting, microscopy and raising heavy objects


Electrical powered devices for work with tight gases, devices for high or low force per unit areas and temperatures, inundations from water-cooled equipment, etc.


Electrical circuit overloading, hapless electrical care, overladen mercantile establishments, overly long gas tube, equipment unnecessarily left switched on, etc.


Worn out electrical cords, improper usage of extension cords, mercantile establishments near a sink/other H2O beginning is non Ground-Fault Circuit Interrupter protected

Environment Temperature

Heat Stress: Working near beaming heat beginnings. High temperatures coupled with increased humidness and/or decreased air motion Wearing Tyvek PPE

Hypothermia: Working in walk-in deep-freezes, iceboxs, or environmental Chamberss Prolonged usage of an unwarmed safety shower


Lab Acquired Infections ( LAIs )

Brucellaspp. ,Coxiella burnetii, Hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) ,Mycobacteria TB, Arboviruses, Hantavirus

Blood borne Pathogens

Hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) , Hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) , Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV )

Cell Cultures

Human Cell: blood borne pathogens and tumorigenic cell

Non-human archpriest cell: herpes B virus and Marburg virus

Rodent cells: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Reo-3 virus and hantavirus

Genetically Modified Organisms ( GMOs )

Pathogenicity of the giver, host and ensuing GMO, Transmissibility, Resistance to antibiotics, Spectrum of host

Biological Toxins

Botulinum toxins, Clostridium perfringens toxins, Staphylococcal entrerotoxin B, Shigatoxins

Viral Vectors

Adenovirus, Retroviruses, Poxvirus, etc.


Carbons – Fullerenes, nanotubes

Oxides – Titanium dioxide, Si dioxide Metals – Gold, Zinc, Nickel, Copper


Blood and tissue Protozoa, enteric Protozoa, fluke, tapeworm, roundworm

Zoonotic Agents

Hydrogen5Nitrogen1– Avian Flu, Influenza A – Swine Flu, Brucella – Brucellosis, Shigella – Shigellosis


Lab animate beings ( proteins found in the animal’s piss, spit and dander )

Common substances ( e.g. latex baseball mitts, diazomethane, Cr, Ni, etc. )



Explosive: Peroxide organizing chemicals. E.g. Divinyl ethyne, Acetal Cumene, Acrylic Acid

Flammable: Diethyl ether, Acetone, Isopropyl intoxicant



Solid: Sodium hydrated oxide and phenol Liquid: Br, Na hydrated oxide, sulfuric acid and H peroxide

Gas: ammonium hydroxide and H chloride




Radioisotopes X-ray machines


UV Radiation, Infrared ( IR ) radiation Radio-frequency ( RF ) and Microwave ( MW ) Radiation, Laser Radiation

2. Exposure to biological agents may take to laboratory-acquired infections ( LAIs ) . Table a list of the TOP five diseases in LAIs. Include the undermentioned in the tabular array.

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Name of disease/infection, Causative agent, Mode of transmittal, Symptoms

N.B. Cite the beginning

Important: Make sure you know how to specify LAI.

Laboratory-acquired infections ( LAIs ) are all infections acquired through research lab or laboratory-related activities regardless whether they are diagnostic or symptomless in nature. They are besides called occupational unwellnesss or laboratory-associated infections.

Harmonizing to an oxford diary titled “Laboratory-Acquired Infections” by Robert A. Weinstein and Kamaljit Singh, although the hazard of infection after an exposure remains ill defined, studies of laboratory-acquired infections suggest thatBrucellaspecies,Shigellaspecies,Salmonellaspecies,Mycobacteria TB, andNeisseria meningitidisare the most common causes.


Causative Agent

Mode of Transmission




1. Raw Dairy MerchandisesFound in the milk of septic animate beings and can distribute to worlds in unpasteurised milk, ice pick, butter and cheeses. Transmitted in natural or undercooked meat from septic animate beings.

2. InhalationSpreads easy in the air. Farmers, research lab technicians and abattoir workers can inhale the bacteriums.

3. Direct Contact

Bacterias in the blood, seeds or placenta of an septic animate being can come in a human’s blood stream through a cut or other lesion.

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Sweat suits
  • Failing
  • Fatigue
  • Joint, musculus and back hurting
  • Concern

Shigellosis ( Shigella infection )


1. Touching Mouth

Without proper lavation of the custodies after altering the nappies of an septic kid, it is possible to go septic.

Likely to happen among yearlings and household members of septic kids

Direct person-to-person contact is the most common manner the disease is spread.

2. Eating Contaminated Food

Infected people who handle nutrient can convey the bacteriums to people who eat the nutrient. Food can besides go contaminated if it grows in a field that contains sewerage.

3. Swallowing Contaminated Water.

Water may go contaminated either from sewerage or from a individual with shigella infection swimming in it.

  • Diarrhoea ( frequently incorporating blood or mucous secretion )
  • Abdominal spasms
  • Fever


( Salmonella infection )


Eating Contaminated Food

1. Natural Meat, Poultry And Seafood During the butchery procedure, fecal matters may acquire onto natural meat and domestic fowl. If harvested from contaminated H2O, seafood may be contaminated.

2. Raw Eggs Infected chickens produce eggs that contain salmonella before the shell is even formed. Infected eggs may so be used in mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce.

3. Fruits And Vegetables

Fresh green goods, peculiarly imported assortments, may be hydrated in the field or washed during treating with H2O contaminated with salmonella. Contamination besides can happen in the kitchen, when juices from natural meat and domestic fowl come into contact with uncooked nutrients, such as salads.

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Abdominal spasms
  • Diarrhea
  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Concern
  • Blood in the stool


Mycobacteria TB


Spread from individual to individual through microscopic droplets released into the air.

Happens when person with the untreated, active signifier of TB coughs, speaks, sneezings, tongues, laughs or sings.

  • Coughing that lasts three or more hebdomads
  • Coughing up blood
  • Chest hurting, or hurting with external respiration or coughing
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night workout suits
  • Chills
  • Loss of appetency


Neisseria meningitidis

Inhalation – Upper Respiratory Infection

Occurs when bacteriums from an upper respiratory infection ( from the fistulas, ears or other parts ) enter your blood stream to the encephalon

Spread from individual to individual through coughing and sneeze

Highly contagious.

  • Sudden high febrility
  • Severe concern that is n’t easy confused with other types of concern
  • Stiff cervix
  • Vomiting or sickness with concern
  • Confusion or trouble concentrating
  • Seizures
  • Sleepiness or trouble waking up
  • Sensitivity to visible radiation
  • Lack of involvement in imbibing and feeding
  • Skin roseola in some instances, such as in meningococcal meningitis

3. What are the paths of exposure for the replies in 2 above?

Paths of Exposure


Mucous membrane exposure ( contact )

Infectious stuffs in contact with eyes, nose, oral cavity.


Mouth pipetting ; feeding, imbibing.


Infectious aerosols, droplets

Transdermal vaccination

Needle stick and other contaminated sharps ; carnal bites ; exposure to antecedently interrupt or damaged tegument

80 % caused by infective aerosols either straight via inspiration or by manus taint while 20 % caused by transdermal or other crisp hurts, spills or splashes and consumption of exposure by touching mouth/eye with contaminated custodies.

4. What are bloodborne pathogens? Other than those listed in the notes, name 2 more.

Blood borne pathogens are infective micro-organisms such as viruses, bacteriums or parasites that are carried in blood, organic structure fluids and other potentially infective stuff and can do disease in worlds.

Examples listed in the notes includes Hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) , Hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) , Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) , Brucella ( Brucellosis ) , Plasmodium vivax ( Malaria ) , Treponema globus pallidus ( Syphilis ) , Paramyxovirus, Salmonella ( Salmonellosis ) and Shigella ( Shigellosis ) .

As harmonizing to the N.C. Department of Labour, another two illustrations areBabesiosis( Babesia ) andSwamp fever( Leptospira ) .

5. Which classs of GMOs need blessing from IBC under Singapore Biosafety Guidelines for Research on GMOs?

Class A and Category B.Class A experiments require IBC Approval and GMAC indorsement and Category B experiments require IBC Approval.

6. Define ‘zoonotic agents’ . List the zoonotic agents that have/had caused diseases in Singapore with the day of the months.

Zoonosiss are infective diseases that are transmitted between species from animate beings to worlds ( or from worlds to other animate beings ) . Zoonotic agents in Singapore are regulated by the Agri-Food & A ; Veterinary Authority under the Animals and Bird Act and the Ministry of Health under Biological Safety and Toxins Act ( BATA ) .

Zoonotic Agents


Severe acute respiratory syndromes

March 2003 – July 2003

Significant Dates1 March 2003 – First patient admitted for suspected penumonia 31 May 2003 – WHO declared Singapore SARS-free 16 July 2003 – SARS eradicated

238 likely SARS instances between March and May 2003

Influenza A – Swine Flu ( H1N1 )

May 2009 – July 2009

Sum of 1217 instances

Dengue Fever/Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever

1960 – currentSignificant Old ages

1960 – 88 instances necessitating hospitalization

2004 – 9,459 instances

2005 – 14,032 instances

2007 – 8,287 instances

2013 – 22,170 instances and 8 deceases


Unknown – current Singapore declared malaria-free since 1982Significant Old ages2003 – 118 instances

2004 – 152 instances

2009 – 172 instances

2012 – 143 instances

2013 – 111 instances


1960 – currentSignificant Old ages2009 – 341 instances

2012 – 22 instances

2013 – 1059 instances

Brucella – Brucellosis

Unknown – unknown

Significant Year9 and 22 April 2008 – 2 instances

Leptospira interrogans – Swamp fever

Unknown – unknownSignificant Old ages

2003 – 29 instances

2004 – 9 instances

2006 – 29 instances

Murine Typhus

Unknown – unknownSignificant Old ages

2004 – 27 instances

2003 – 16 instances

Viral Encephalitis

Unknown – unknownSignificant Year

2002 – 18 instances and 2 deceases

7. What are the jeopardies when working with human serum in the research lab?

The human serum is the constituent that is neither a curdling factor nor a blood cell and therefore does non incorporate ruddy or white blood cells. It contains all proteins non used in curdling and all the electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, endocrines and any exogenic substances which includes drugs and micro-organisms.

Blood borne pathogens such as viruses, bacteriums or parasites are carried in the human serum and can do disease in people. Blood borne pathogens are transmitted through an inadvertent puncture by a crisp object contained with the pathogen. There is contact between broken or damaged tegument and infected organic structure fluids and contact between mucose membranes and infected organic structure fluids. Unbroken tegument signifiers an imperviable barrier against blood borne pathogens. However, septic blood or blood fluids can come in the system percutaneously through any kind of damaged or broken tegument: unfastened sores, cuts, scratchs, acne and tan or blisters. Examples include Hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) , Hepatitis C virus ( HCV ) , Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) , Brucella ( Brucellosis ) , Plasmodium vivax, Treponema globus pallidus, Paramyxovirus, Salmonella and Shigella.

Hepatitis B ( HBV ) is a virus that causes infection and redness of the liver which can take to serious conditions such as cirrhosis and liver malignant neoplastic disease. It is transmitted chiefly through “blood to blood” contact and can last in dried blood for up to seven yearss. Hepatitis C ( HCV ) can do redness of the liver, and may take to cirrhosis, chronic liver disease or liver malignant neoplastic disease. HCV infection is more likely to be chronic instead than ague.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus ( HIV ) causes acquired immune lack syndrome ( AIDS ) and may be many old ages before AIDS really develops. HIV attacks the body’s immune system, weakening it so that it can non contend other deathly diseases, doing AIDS a fatal disease.


Robert A. Weinstein and Kamaljit Singh, 2009.Laboratory-Acquired Infections. Clin Infect Dis. ( 2009 ) 49 ( 1 ) : 142-147 doi:10.1086/599104

Mayo Clinic, 2014.Brucellosis[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/brucellosis/basics/symptoms/con-20028263 [ Accessed 28 April 2015 ]

Mayo Clinic, 2012.Shigella Infection[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/shigella/basics/symptoms/con-20028418 [ Accessed 28 April 2015 ]

Mayo Clinic, 2014.Salmonella Infection[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/salmonella/basics/symptoms/con-20029017 [ Accessed 28 April 2015 ]

Mayo Clinic, 2014.Tuberculosis[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/tuberculosis/basics/symptoms/con-20021761 [ Accessed 28 April 2015 ]

Mayo Clinic, 2013.Meningitis[ online ] . Available from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/meningitis/basics/symptoms/con-20019713 [ Accessed 28 April 2015 ]

N.C. Department of Labor, 2010.A Guide to Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nclabor.com/osha/etta/indguide/ig7.pdf [ Accessed 28 April 2015 ]

Ministry of Health, 2005.Vector Borne Diseases[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.moh.gov.sg/content/dam/moh_web/Publications/Reports/2005/3/Vector-Borne_Diseases.pdf [ Accessed 1 April 2015 ]

Ministry of Health, 2010.Vector Borne Diseases[ online ] . Available from:

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.moh.gov.sg/content/dam/moh_web/Publications/Reports/2010/2/Vector-borne % 202009.pdf [ Accessed 1 April 2015 ]

The Straits Times, 2013.Severe acute respiratory syndromes in Singapore: Timeline[ online ] . Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.straitstimes.com/the-big-story/sars-10th-anniversary/story/sars-singapore-timeline-20130316 [ Accessed 1 April 2015 ]