Evolution of female artists Essay

Before the 20th century, adult females creative persons struggled to take part in the male-dominated art universe. Male domination forbade female acquisition in general. Women had minimum entree to classs in art history, doctrine, and anatomy of the human organic structure. Not deriving any position of the human anatomy hindered the adult females creative persons from making realistic portrayals or accurate olympian scenes. Along with the educational restrictions, female creative persons were out to chalk out from unrecorded theoretical accounts because it compromised their unity. Proper societal protocol would propose that self-expression of a female was limited to bearing kids, conforming to proper societal etiquette and lacing devising. Some adult females creative persons rejected societal protocol of matrimony to prosecute freedom within their artistic looks. These female creative persons laid the foundation for equality of artistic freedom despite the rough ordinances placed on their pictures.

These open uping female creative persons would discreetly integrate feminist significances into their work and wanted to take the gender label from their graphicss. The intent of de-gendering their art was to vie and happen acknowledgment of their endowments within the art society. By de-gendering their pictures, female creative persons started to derive acknowledgment of their endowments. During the early 19th century, female creative persons ‘ reputes affirmed their endowments and they easy achieved success. The 20th century marked a major societal and cultural motion for them. Female creative persons insisted equality within society by protesting the gender prejudices and limited chances within the art community. Their disapproval provided a foundation for adult females creative persons to contend for equality and justness within museums and art galleries. Along with verbally contending for equality, these adult females designed their art to traverse gender, sexual, and societal norms. Early coevals women’s rightist creative persons inspired future coevalss of female creative persons to interrupt the stereotypes of art. Pioneering female creative persons had the bravery to make artistic chef-d’oeuvres, expose the gender prejudices within the art community, and shatter originative boundaries within society.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

This way for adult females ‘s equality in art was received with unfavorable judgment and objectification. Noticeable separation of male to female creative persons is illustrated in Johann Zoffany ‘s group portrayal of the freshly founded Royal Academy in 1772. Female creative persons Kaufmann and Moser are non included among the male creative persons but their portrayals hung on the academy ‘s walls ( Chadwick 7 ) . Their artistic endowments were comparable to the gentlemen within the academy, yet, Zoffany treated these adult females as objects, non peers. During the fifteenth and 16th centuries, adult females were barred from the survey of the bare theoretical accounts that formed the footing for academic preparation.

The deficiency of academic preparation provided to these adult females did non smother them from wining within the art community. Sofonisba Anguissola illustrated in 15th century that adult females could dispute the male creative person, even with the restrictions placed on their artistic boundaries. Womans were confined to paint merely self-portraits or respectable landscapes. Sofonisba Self-Portraits exemplifies her techniques in picture by the contrast, visible radiations, and colourss used in her portrayals. These portrayals incorporate her topographic point within society, civilization, and her ain ace. Sofonisba ‘s male parent stifled her pictures when she became of age to get married. She refused to halt picture and defied society by go oning to paint when she was married and was bearing kids ( Chave ) . Her portrayals still astound the art community with her coppice techniques.

Artemisia Gentileschi challenged society with her portrayal of Susanna and the Elders created after the strong belief of Artemisia ‘s raper. She lived a atrocious life of anguish, colza, and misrepresentation. Her male parent was a great creative person and ran his ain studio for animating male creative person. Her male parent taught her how to paint within the boundaries of decently raised females. During one of her male parent ‘s Sessionss a immature pupil lured Artemisia to an outside room and raped her at the age of 12. The charge of colza was unheard of and the instance was taken to the high tribunals. At the test, her pollexs were bound and tightened with each inquiry asked by the tribunal. This anguish was to guarantee the tribunal that she was stating the truth under hurting. The immature gentleman was convicted, which embarrassed her male parent ‘s repute. Artemisia ‘s male parent disowned her for many old ages over the justice ‘s opinion. She was able to transform her passion and personal hurting over the old ages to make artistic chef-d’oeuvres. With her success, she opened a school for adult females artist at the immature age of 14 ( Mieke ) .

Women ‘s release was still considered absurd through the 1800 ‘s, but one adult female creative person took the universe by surprise. Rosa Bonheur was an extraordinary adult female that was restricted to pulling and painting wildlife portrayals and landscapes. Rosa incorporated messages of authorization and rebellion in The Horse Fair, which illustrates Equus caballuss being pulled and shoved by the male animal trainers. The message of The Horse Fair was translated over the old ages as the Equus caballuss represented the adult females ‘s battle for equality and freedom. In her personal life, she broke the cast by dressing as a adult male, holding a female comrade, and controlled her ain money ( Madden ) . Rosa ‘s strong belief to be a adult female creative person and ego reliant demonstrated early aspirations of adult females ‘s releases.

The adult females ‘s release motion started to derive impulse in the early 1900 ‘s with the Women ‘s Suffrage Movement. This motion involved adult females unifying for equality within the societal and political organisations. These rebellious adult females uprooted themselves from the day-to-day undertakings of cookery and cleansing to picket the White House for equality. The feminist motion for equality did non derive much political land and many of these organisations disbanded over the inequality defeats. This motion influenced many adult females to get down researching their ain freedoms within society. This female geographic expedition developed into assorted feminist organisations that promoted unworried attitudes of dance, smoke, and basking life. Enjoying life was short lived for the early women’s rightist groups due to the Great Depression in the 1930 ‘s. During WWII, women’s rightist started to draw out of the depression and began executing masculine axial rotations within society. “ Rosie the Riveter ” was an image of the powerful adult females back uping their household and the state while at war. The image of Rosie fueled the sense of independency and freedom within adult females lives. Unfortunately, the war ended and work forces returning place from war wanted their places back as the household supplier. Women returning to the function of housewife did non sit good with the women’s rightist organisations because they started to derive societal and political freedoms ( Nguyen ) . The early 1900 ‘s laid a foundation for adult females rights and freedom of self-expression and release. However, it took another 20 old ages for the feminist motion to derive any land within society or the art community.

Through the 1960 ‘s and 1970 ‘s, America was confronting the Vietnam War and societal alterations within the largest societal construction, the Catholic Church. Women realized their deficiency of representation within society and the art community. They began to form themselves into support groups in order to raise consciousness of equal chances. A new moving ridge of feminism gained impulse by actively oppugning gender norms and undertaking stereotypes. The Women ‘s Liberation Movement in the Sixtiess started with the battle for Civil Rights among inkinesss, the leftist political pupil revolution of 1968, and the presentations against the Vietnam War ( Humm 132 ) . In add-on, these protests included the battle for abortion-rights, sexual freedom, societal, and economical equality.

The Women ‘s Liberation and female creative persons became closely united forces in contending for visualising the unfairnesss of society. The inequality of adult females expanded into the artistic community that escorted the first protest on the American art universe. These protests focused on racism and sexism within the art community that enraged many women’s rightist. The advancement for equality was get downing to go organized and powerful, which allowed for all unfairnesss to be just game. One of the organisations was the Art Workers Coalition that was formed by creative person George Takis. He removed one of his sculptures from the Museum of Modern Art or MoMA in 1969, which drew attending to his disapproval of the intervention of assorted creative persons ( Gross ) . However, his protest for adult females creative persons ‘ equality was non every bit of import to him as other causes. This infuriated the adult females creative persons within the group to strike out on their ain.

The Women Artists in Revolution or WAR was an established as a fragment organisation to protest the male dominated Art Worker Coalition. Cindy Nemser is an art historiographer and critic, who published legion diaries in the 1970 ‘s about the release of adult females creative persons. She attended one of the first meetings of WAR. They gained acknowledgment as creative persons and non as objects within the art community ( Russell and Spencer 112 ) . One of the important subjects during the first meeting was the argument whether to hold an all adult females ‘s creative person exhibition. A few adult females felt fearful that they would be stigmatized by exhibiting their graphics with lone adult females. Within minutes the argument resolved to the declaration to hold a exhibit having 12 adult females creative persons, which they would name X12: Ten. The purpose of this exhibit was to exemplify the power and endowments of adult females creative persons and it became a milepost for equal artistic rights. These 12 adult females creative persons conducted their exhibition on the roof in the East Village, NYC in 1970. Artists were: Iris Crump, Lois DiCosola, Maryann Gillies, Silvianna Goldsmith, Helene Gross, Doloris Holmes, Arline Lederman, Inverna Lockpez, Carolyn Mazzello, Vernita Nemec, Doris O’Kane, and Alida Walsh ( Bock DiCosola ) .

That same twelvemonth of the X12: Ten exhibition the A.W.C. and W.A.R. collaborated to protest the actions of the Whitney Museum. The Whitney Museum ‘s Annual gap in 1970 featured “ 143 creative persons and merely 8 of the creative person were adult females ” ( Gross ) . This deficiency of adult females creative persons ‘ representation in the museum piloted presentations by the Women Artist in Revolution and the Art Workers Coalition. These organisations advocated equal chances by direct unfastened letters, presentations, and media interviews. The intent of these presentations was to take a firm stand that all the art establishments reorganize the museum ‘s exhibition docket. These demands included subjects of feminism, anti-racism, and anti-war motions that needed to be incorporated into the museums exhibitions. In add-on, these demands included the engagement of the art establishments to exhibit and put minorities and adult females ‘s creative persons within society. Due to the intensive battle for equality of female representation at the museums the “ Whitney Museum raised from 5 % in 1970 to 22 % in 1971. ” These protests opened many avenues for societal and artistic equality within society ( Tobias ) .

Another organisation contending for adult females artist ‘s rights was AIR or Artists in Residence. The AIR Gallery open in 1972 and is the first non-profit gallery that exhibits adult females creative persons in America. These female creative persons would find what plans and exhibits would be illustrated in the gallery. Besides, each female creative person would hold the chance to show their plants by planing and put ining their ain show. Some of these exhibits would pull some commercial locales but the bulk of the exhibits would dispute the position against the stereotypes of adult females in society ( Chave ) .

This artistic development opened legion chances for authors to concentrate on the history of adult females ‘s equality within the artistic society. Furthermore, these authors wanted to expose the corrupt yesteryear with the historical perceptual experience of adult females artist. Linda Nochlin published an essay in 1971 called, “ Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? ” This essay inspired adult females creative persons to reject art history of adult females because of the unfairnesss within the educational and cultural chances. These rejections offered adult females the authorization to reject the customary artistic instruction, which was held in modesty for male creative persons. She communicates that the mistake for the deficiency of adult females artist did non lie within their stars or endocrines. Linda explains that adult females creative persons do non hold the aureate nugget of mastermind and continues to province that adult females creative persons were non born with the cistrons to be a great creative person because of the deficiency of a phallus ( Nochlin ) . Linda ‘s publication encouraged many adult females artist to reject the past and range within their psyche to happen new inspirations within female art.

Judy Chicago read Nochlin ‘s essay and began to re-educate herself in art history by rejecting the atilt observations of male art history. Judy ‘s earlier exhibitions of her work at the Jewish Museum included pictures as the “ Rainbow Pickets ” and “ Primary Structures ” . These earlier graphicss utilized the Minimalists approach ( Chave ) . However, this attack to art was abandoned with the consciousness of the battle for adult females ‘s equality within the artistic community. Nochlin ‘s essay inspired adult females like Judy to travel toward the feminist art cabal and to show in aspirations of artistic creativeness. The female creative persons of the revolution went beyond gender prejudice to make a new coevals of stirring and proactive art. This development of adult females ‘s expressionism facilitated the new moving ridge of emancipating subjects that was incorporated into pictures, sculptures, and instruction ( Lucie-Smith 196 ) .

Miriam Schapiro embraced the female experience of trades and developed a new median of art. She was inspired by this feminist motion to show and promote the position of trades to a all right art through stitching, montage, and picture. The usage of embellishment and cross-stitching within art has come to be known as “ femmage. ” “ Femmage ” was a word that stood for manus sewn art that integrated different cloths and textures. This alone usage of trades elevated her work to the “ high-art ” of montages, which is seen in the “ Doll ‘s House ” at the Womanhouse undertaking ( Bock DiCosola ) . Schapiro wanted to promote the ordinary homemakers to be inspired and made cognizant that their day-to-day undertakings could be turned into beautiful art. Her popularity within the adult females ‘s community allowed her to dispute the constitutions of unfairnesss and encouraged adult females to emerge from the isolation of the homemaker ‘s character. Schapiro ‘s enthusiasm for emancipating the homemaker included educational undertakings with Judy Chicago.

Judy and Miriam became acquainted by their acknowledgment of each other ‘s earlier artistic challenges in the male dominated art society. They foremost met at a dinner held in the place of Allan Kaprow, where they discussed the possibility of Schapiro talking at the university where Judy resided. Both of these adult females embraced the emancipation of adult females and adult females creative persons. The first promotion of educational plans for adult females in art was created by Judy at California State University. Judy and Schapiro integrated their endowments to plan the first Feminist Art Program at the California Institute of Arts ( Lucie-Smith 194 ) . It was the purpose of this school to make a new coevals of creative persons, who had an expanded cognition of the women’s rightist ego consciousness. These challenges and acknowledgment of each other ‘s work encouraged Judy and Miriam to hold an exhibit that allowed the adult females artists to show their new muliebrity.

In 1972, Womanhouse undertaking was a insight of Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro and integrated the Feminist Art Program at the California Institute of the Arts. This exhibition encouraged pupils of the Feminist Art Program to take part. The purpose of the Womanhouse is to showcase adult females ‘s public presentations and art exterior of the school environment. Projecting the pupils into the societal community gave a new intent for their art and a opportunity to open the heads of the populace to emancipating adult females ‘s artistic abilities. This exhibition joined forces with all the pupils to fix a bedraggled house in a suburban country of Hollywood. Students that worked several occupations had to prioritise their lives to make new pieces for the exhibit. Beyond their ain plants of art, the pupils became labourers in mending Windowss, rewiring electric and other woodworking related undertakings. Unfortunately, the project of this undertaking became overpowering for the pupils and staff. Numerous pupils were pushed to their bounds and suffered sleep want and exhaustion in readying. Judy became the general of this undertaking by shouting, jab, and forcing pupils to their bounds ( Sider ) . The pupils and staff managed to change over this house into a month long art exhibition for the populace. Each adult female was given a room to make whatever they wanted, supplying it followed the parametric quantities of the female ‘s experiences.

The Womanhouse exhibition was received with assorted reactions by the critics. These take parting creative persons were less concerned with the critics and more concerned with raising the witting consciousness in muliebrity. Each dark of the show, the media and witnesss filled the exhibition suites to interact with many gifted creative persons. The general, or Judy, created the Menstruation Bathroom that included a waste basket overruning with dirty, bloody tablets. She besides scattered around the bathroom assorted feminine hygiene undertakings. Another imaginative usage of family points is the Linen Closet designed by Sandra Orgel. The Linen Closet illustrates a adult females trapped inside the cupboard or incorporated into the cupboard next to the folded towels. The caput of the females appears to hold been chopped off and placed on the ego. The one leg appears to be outside but besides attached to the organic structure, it seems to be that she was stuck inside the boundaries of traditional adult females ‘s responsibilities. The traditional adult females ‘s responsibility was challenged by a room called Waiting at Womanhouse. Waiting at Womanhouse was performed by Faith Wilding, which involves her posing in a room with her custodies folded while she rocks back and forth reciting words that stereotyped adult females. Faith would mumble words like, waiting for person to feed me, put me on the lavatory, or waiting for climacteric. The message provided by this piece demonstrates the out-of-date suppression of females but besides provides a powerful voice to interrupt the rhythm of subjugation. Nurturant Kitchen was a combined insularity by Susan Frazier, Robin Weltsch and Vicki Hodgetts. The Womanhouse exhibit provided a originative mercantile establishment for the creative person to research the feminist position of unequal chances in society. Furthermore, it illustrates the endowments that adult females possess when they are non muffled by the male dominated society ( Sider ) .

During the Womanhouse exhibit, another organisation for adult females ‘s equal rights was get downing to assemble. In 1971, the Women in Arts Foundation or WIA became a structured foundation that addressed the favoritisms against adult females creative persons. This foundation challenged the unjust patterns of jurying female creative persons for shows. Besides, they provided educational and professional information to these creative persons, so that they could regulate their callings with cognition. A bulk of these educational plans tackled subjects covering with assorted jurisprudence patterns, grants, art traders, and get bying with critics ( Morgan ) . The WIA organisation besides contributed in protests that took to the streets of New York. They would hold telecasting interviews, addresss, and even picketed events that were unfair to the female creative person.

WIA conducted a protest in forepart of MoMA, which included legion unfastened missive runs to the New York museums to reorganise their ignorance toward adult females creative persons. The consequence of this protest led to the “ Women Choose Women ” exhibition that opened in 1973. This show included merely 109 of about 500 WIA members ( Tobias ) . Although the per centum of adult females was low, it still set a case in point for future adult females ‘s exhibitions. “ Women Choose Women ” was indispensable non merely because it was the first adult females ‘s museum exhibition but it gained acknowledgment by the art community. It was of import because it demonstrated that adult females creative persons were no longer under the control of the male influences and these males could no longer find what works of the females would be exhibited. Besides these adult females creative persons would make up one’s mind how these exhibitions would be interpreted. Inverna Lockpez was one of the creative persons featured in this exhibition with an ignoble picture. Lockpez was ever involved with the adult females ‘s motion since the early 1960ss and felt that this show was delinquent. Buffie Johnson, Betty Parsons, and Mary Frank were among some of the diverse creative persons that were featured in this exhibit. This show illustrated assorted adult females ‘s artistic abilities and was hosted by the New York Cultural Center ( Jolly ) . The “ Women Choose Women ” show set precedency for other adult females creative persons to unite and take control of their graphics.

The “ Women Choose Women ” and the sexual revolution aided in the release of homosexual and bisexual female creative persons. However, the battle for adult females ‘s freedom was still ongoing and to undertake another issue for female homosexual equality would be disputing. The League for the Advancement of Lesbianism in the Arts was founded in Los Angeles. This foundation provided a safe environment for their members to research the freedom of gender through their art. In New York City sapphic creative persons protested the deficiency of support within the art community. Ellen Turner, Maxine Fine, Flavia Rando, Ellen Turner and Fran Winant would aim high traffic populated countries and saturate them with transcripts of their graphicss. These graphics circulars would hold the female creative person ‘s drawings, which was stamped with the word “ sapphic art ” across the circular. In 1974, the Lesbian Herstory Archives was founded in New York City by Joan Nestle and Deborah Edel. The project of this foundation was to garner and continue records of sapphic lives and activities so that future coevalss will hold entree to the stuff. Furthermore, sapphic creative persons ‘ were deriving some acknowledgment in 1978 with “ A Lesbian Show ” exhibition ( Jolly ) .

Harmony Hammond created the “ A Lesbian Show ” which was an exhibition that featured sapphic creative persons. In the early 1970 ‘s, she exhibited art pieces that resembled the feminist attitudes of the times. Beyond the confronting of the current women’s rightist docket, Harmony came out as a sapphic and became a strong voice for future coevalss of sapphic creative persons. She is an complete creative person that incorporates sapphic feminism into her pictures, sculptures, and Hagiographas. Her artistic plant incorporates the female stereotyped family stuffs into her sculptures and pictures. Some of these stuffs included the usage of covers, drapes, and any recycled fabrics that were transformed into crocheted painted carpets. Harmony besides experimented with latex and gum elastic stuffs in her sculptures which are illustrated in her bag aggregation. Today, this innovator of adult females ‘s art is still an complete creative person, author, conservator, and publishing house on the subject of sapphic art ( Russell and Spencer 220-221 ) .

In the 1970 ‘s there were many foundations that supported the feminist battle. However, allow ‘s travel beyond the organisations or exhibitions and research a few of these pioneering women’s rightist creative persons. These adult females used their artistic creativeness to show alone penetrations within feminist art. It is of import to acknowledge each of these undermentioned adult females as brave and bold adult females within their ain strong beliefs to broaden the creative persons ‘ consciousness to female art and equality.

Cindy Sherman established her repute as an creative person by utilizing Untitled Film Stills to supply a different prospective on picture taking. In the late seventiess, she created a series of black-and-white exposure which the creative person depicted herself dressed in the pretenses of clich & A ; eacute ; d B-movie heroines. Another creative person that used movie within the artistic community was Joyce Wieland. She was a painter, author, and manager of her ain films, which include “ The Far Shore ” . Joyce is called the innovator of the thought of adult females working together to make art. She was the first creative person to engage outside single quilters to quilt assorted pieces for her “ Reason Over Passion ” ( Chadwick 383 ) . Joyce was considered one of the most of import creative person figures with the U.S. and Canada.

Judy Chicago used other female creative persons to help her creative activity of the 1979 piece called “ The Dinner Party ” . She had taken the thought of acquiring other adult females to assist her from Joyce Wieland, but unlike Wieland, Judy Chicago ne’er paid the people who worked for her. “ This Dinner Party ” took five old ages to finish and she has since received a bad repute for working the work of other creative persons by taking the recognition for herself ( Chadwick 229 ) . Judy ‘s attempts and thrust helped the feminist motion toward a positive way but after this show her past achievements were over shadowed by her greed.

Benglis is the following feminist creative person that rocked the artistic community. Her creative activities are really unusual constructs of the usage of latex. During the feminist motion, she poured latex and froth to make sculptures. Benglis angrily created these plants of art to stand for the male dominated merger of pictures and sculptures that had taken topographic point within Process Art and Minimalism. Motion of the stuff was the intent for making these sculptures with the froth and latex. Benglis ‘ work was met with contention over the critical consciousness of the abstraction of content and the gesture of the mass ( Tobias ) . Her creative activities of sculptures were really formal but used alone stuffs that captured the audience imagine.

The sculptures during the feminist motion varied from latex to fiberglass. Hesse ‘s preferable stuff was fibreglass, which incorporated organic geometric elements into the sculptures. Most of her sculptures were stiff and contained mechanical forms and signifiers. Unfortunately, during her extremum of artistic mastermind, Hesse discovered that she had a encephalon tumour. It has been said that her alone state of affairs gave her the inspiration to boldly use stuffs like latex, gum elastic, and cheesecloth ‘s to specify motion within the sculptures ( Chadwick 340 ) .

The last feminist creative person that inspired this research for the liberating art motion was Betye Saar. She began making graphicss that incorporated the societal unfairnesss arranged within boxes with Windowss. Saar used assorted media montages, gatherings, and installings to exemplify her message of freedom. Saar ‘s work had a methodic component of transition of life, decease, and metempsychosis. Each of her graphicss conveyed narratives of equalities, her ain assorted civilization, and the battle for civil autonomies. The bulk of her art work trades with issues of race and gender equality. The Liberation of Aunt Jemima forces the audience to see the unfairnesss within the societal boundaries of life ( Barko ) .

In closing, the development of the artistic freedom illustrates the degree of prejudice within the instruction and chances offered to the early innovator adult females creative persons. During the late 1960 ‘s and early 1970 ‘s, female creative persons began to form and contend for equal artistic and personal freedoms. These early battles for equal exhibitions led many female creative persons to carry on protests and boycotts of assorted museums to derive acknowledgment. Assorted female creative persons that had the chance to exhibit their plants opened new avenues for future feminist creative persons. These artistic innovators illustrated that females are merely as talented, bold, and provocative as male creative persons. The aureate egg theory that males had a gift from God to be great creative persons was trampled by the feminist artistic motion. Furthermore, these feminist creative persons demonstrated that their graphicss were merely every bit marketable as the male creative persons ‘ plants. The organisations formed by these adult females were used to supply support and promotion within the artistic community. Many of these women’s rightists ‘ artistic organisations still exist today. They still continue to contend for equality and equal exposure for the female creative person and their graphicss. Nowadays, adult females creative persons are able to profit from these innovators of release ; nevertheless, to profit from the yesteryear is to keep the degree of artistic freedom in the hereafter.

Work Cited

  • Anguissola, Sofonisba. “ Self Portrait. ” 1561. Painting. hypertext transfer protocol: //www-english.tamu.edu/pers/fac/phillippy/_women_artists/anguissola/ . 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Barko, Cortney Cronberg. “ Rediscovering Female Voice and Authority: The Revival of Female Artists in Wendy Wasserstein ‘s The Heidi Chronicles. ” Frontiers: A Journal of Women Studies 29.1 ( Mar. 2008 ) : 121-138. Academic Search Elite. EBSCO. Westmoreland County Community College Learning Resources Center. 23 Aug. 2009 & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=afh & A ; AN=32432695 & A ; site=ehost-live & gt ; .
  • Benglis, Lynda. ” Quartered Meteor. ” 1969. Photo.http: //www.cheimread.com/exhibitions/2002_10_bettina-rheims — lynda-benglis/ . 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Bock DiCosola, Lois Ann. “ Feminists Who Changed America 1963-1975. ” 2007. 13 September,2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.absolutearts.com/artsnews/2007/01/29/34337.html & gt ; .
  • Bonheur, Rosa. “ The Horse Fair. ” 1853. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.shepherd.edu/englweb/artworks/A8.jpg. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Chave, Anna C. “ I Object ” Hannah Wilke ‘s ( Feminism ) . Art in America 97.3 ( Mar. 2009 ) : 104. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Westmoreland County Community College Learning Resources Center. 23 Aug. 2009 & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=f5h & A ; AN=37007799 & A ; site=ehost-live & gt ; .
  • Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art, and Society. 4th Ed. Canada: Thames & A ; HudsonWorld of Art, 2007.
  • Chicago, Judy. “ The Dinner Party. ” 1974-79. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/spring07/sp2007exh_03.htm. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Chicago, Judy. “ Menstruation Bathroom. ” 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //feministartrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/12/womanhouse-1973.html. 30 Nov.2009.
  • Chicago, Judy. “ Rainbow Pickett. ” 1965. Photo.http: //www.lewallencontemporary.com/judychicago. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Frazier, Susan, Hodgetts, Vicki, & A ; Weltsch, Robin. “ Nurturant Kitchen. ” 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //feministartrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/12/womanhouse-1973.html. 30 Nov.2009.
  • Gentileschi, Artemisia. “ Susanna and the Elders. ” 1610. Painting. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.artemisia-gentileschi.com/susanna.html. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Gross, Alexander. “ The Artists ‘ Branch of the Movement. ” Inside the ‘Sixties Book. 2009.September 15,2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //language.home.sprynet.com/otherdex/60spenni.htm & gt ; .
  • Hammond, Harmony. “ Bag XI. ” 1971. 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/feminist_art_base/gallery/harmonyhammond.php? i=832. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Hammond, Harmony. “ Floorpiece VI. ” 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/feminist_art_base/gallery/harmonyhammond.php? i=832. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Hesse, Eva. “ Right After. ” 1969. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/feminist_art_base/gallery/eva_hesse.php? i=1700.30 Nov. 2009.
  • Humm, Maggie. The Dictionary of Feminist Theory. 2nd erectile dysfunction. Capital of ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1995.
  • Lucie-Smith, Edward. Motions in Art Since 1945. 1st Ed. Canada: Thames & A ; Hudson World of Art, 2001.
  • Reasonably, Margaretta. Lesbian Herstory Archives. 2009. LHEF, Inc..13 September,2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lesbianherstoryarchives.org/index.html.
  • Lesbian Herstory Archives. “ Lesbian Herstory Archives Photo ” 1974. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lesbianherstoryarchives.org/index.html. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Lockpez, Inverna. “ Untitled. ” Motions in Art Since 1945. 1st Ed. Canada: Thames & A ; Hudson World of Art, 2001.
  • Madden, Gerry. “ Rosa Bonheur, a Boy in Petticoats. ” Hopscotch 16.6 ( Apr. 2005 ) : 36. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Westmoreland County Community College Learning Resources Center. 22 Aug. 2009 & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=f5h & A ; AN=16468506 & A ; site=ehost-live & gt ; .
  • Mieke, Bal. The Artemisia Files: Artemisia Gentileschi for Feminists and Other Thinking Peoples. 1st erectile dysfunction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005.
  • Morgan, Ann Lee. “ Feminist Art. ” Art Journal 54.3 ( Fall95 1995 ) : 102. MasterFILE Premier. Westmoreland County Community College Learning Resources Center. 23 Aug. 2009 & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=f5h & A ; AN=9510100696 & A ; site=ehost-live & gt ; .
  • Nochlin, Linda. “ Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists? “ ARTnews 91.9 ( Nov. 1992 ) : 114. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCO. Westmoreland County Community College Learning Resources Center. 22 Aug. 2009 & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=true & A ; db=f5h & A ; AN=9303050637 & A ; site=ehost-live & gt ; .
  • Nguyen, Linda. “ The Women ‘s Movement. ” 2006. Historygals. 2 December, 2009. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.angelfire.com/ca/HistoryGals/Wesley.html
  • Orgel, Sandra. “ Linen Closet. ” 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //feministartrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/12/womanhouse-1973.html. 30 Nov.2009.
  • Russell, John, and Spencer, Thomas. Art Across America: A Comprehensive Guide to American Art Museums and Exhibition Galleries. 1st erectile dysfunction. Monkton, MD: Friar ‘s Lantern, 2000.
  • Saar, Betye. “ The Liberation of Aunt Jemima. ” 1972. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cfa.arizona.edu/are476/files/saar.htm. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Schapiro, Miriam. “ Doll ‘s House ” 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.davidrumsey.com/amica/amico1103201-116044.html. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Sherman, Cindy. “ Untitled Film Still # 14. ” 1978. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //pilgrimakimbo.blogspot.com/2007/05/untitled-film-post.html. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Sider, Sandra. WOMANHOUSE: Cradle of Feminist Art. 2008. Art Spaces Archives Project.15 September,2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //as-ap.org/sider/resources.cfm & gt ; .
  • Tobias, Jennifer. “ Documenting a Feminist Past: Art World Critique. ” 2007. MoMA. 15 September, 2009. & A ; lt ; hypertext transfer protocol: //www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2007/feminist_past/index.html & gt ; .
  • Unknown Photographer. “ A.I.R. Gallery Opens. ” Sep 01, 1972. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.brooklynmuseum.org/eascfa/feminist_timeline/plain_text.php. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Whitney Museum of American Art. “ International Artists Demonstration. ” 1976. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.neme.org/main/354/news-from-nowhere. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Wieland, Joyce. “ Reason Over Passion. ” 1968. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/canadian/Joyce-Wieland-Canadian-Artist.html. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Wilding, Faith. “ Waiting at Womanhouse. ” 1973. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //feministartrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/12/womanhouse-1973.html. 30 Nov.2009.
  • Womans Artists in Revolution. “ X12: Ten Group Photo. ” 1970. Photo. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncognita.com/my_feminist_art_history.htm. 30 Nov. 2009.
  • Zoffany, Johann. “ The academicians of the Royal Academy. ” 1771-72. Painting. hypertext transfer protocol: //arthistory.about.com/od/from_exhibitions/ig/the_conversation_piece/fashionable_life_0910_06.htm. 30 Nov. 2009.