Evaluating the Role of Human Resources in Delivering Successful Change Management Essay

                                                                     Abstract

          Managing change and performance strategies in any given organization are very useful towards making the organization successful. This becomes the best approach that will lead to better and efficient management. The paper focuses on management skills for both the top level managers and employees in embracing organizational change. It also seeks to analyze the support systems that need to be put in place so as to help successfully implement these changes. The paper also gives a brief discussion on some of the major approaches and steps that can be taken or adopted towards organization or company improvement to a high profile. These steps have been well discussed and justified on how they can help in promoting the performance and quality of a given organization so as to improve the productivity and better yields.

                                                ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I certify that the work presented in the dissertation is my own unless referenced

                                                        2.0 Introduction

           In order to promote efficient management of any given institution, the best approach will be to come up with ways of managing organizational change and performance, through the role of human resources in delivering successful change management. It’s through the concepts of human resources where all the individuals in the institution or organization will be mentored towards such change development. The concept of change generally entails innovation, which involves the basic idea of introducing something new into the organization. Organizational change concentrates on improving existing structures and entails activities that are focused on strengthening and developing the organization productivity and sustaining its subsistence. Organizations and businesses are indispensable sub-groups present in the global market. Different organizations function differently, especially in the role of human resources in delivering successful change management. Change management is an important concept in all organizations. It is of significance to a majority of situations found at all levels, ranging from individual, to organization and leadership (Cox,1994,pg 48).As the global market continue to evolve and develop, the principles of change continues to increase, change management has become an fundamental competency required for workers especially top managers and organization leaders. Change management concepts involves processes that entails managing transformational changes in an organization, which tends to have an effect on the performance, way of life and structure of the company. Change is prevalent and it’s inevitable in any environment. Organizations and businesses ought to change so that they can respond effectively to the loads of pressures and dynamic environment experienced in the global market. Some of these issues include problems resulting from international competition, continuous fluctuations in customer needs and wants, changes in science and technology and new rules and regulations. Over and over again, these issues necessitate organizations to change the way they operate. Most of these changes concentrate on the human resource department and often include incremental transformations that redefine functions and roles, eradicate unproductive processes or prompt new working techniques. At other times, these global and market issues require a major disruption of the organization structure. Effective changes bring about transformations in the company culture, systems and strategy. Effective organizational changes increase performance and productivity thus the organization is able to see majority of the employees getting the greatest benefits from the very efficient management in the organization. The management strategies in the organization should be optimistically mentored so as to augment cohesive groups while promoting partnering. This will be the best approach towards ensuring that the employees benefit from the working experience offered in the organization (Daiban, 2002, pg 39).

                                        2.1 Organizational change

       If an organization adopts new behavior or idea, it is said to have gone through an organizational change. Definitively, organization change simply refers to transformations that occur in an organization. In technical terms it relates to situations where companies systems are disturbed by either internal or external forces. As a process, it involves adjustments of the organization structure or processes which at times can be good or bad. The concept of Change generally entails innovation, which involves the basic idea of introducing something new into the organization .Organizational change could be internal or external depending on the goal that the organization aspires to achieve. Introduction of new technologies and products in a changing world could bring the best results in an organization. Both the executive office and junior employees need to have some particular skills in order to have smooth changes in the organization. Also, for the changes to be successfully implemented, some support systems are necessary. Organizational change involves changes in organization strategy, structure, technology and behaviors of employees. Its management revolves around as a multidisciplinary practice that enables efficient communication between change audiences and the management; it also aligns employees and members of public expectations. Organization change help design effective strategies that help to avoid problems resulting from change. Organizational Changes within organizations have recently helped some organizations to change from some traditional organizations to some transformed organizations and this has greatly affected the output of these organizations and taken the organizations to some better positions (D’Souza, 2008, pp 43).

                                         2.2 Importance of Organizational Change

         Regardless of developments in the global scene, Organizations always take considerable times to develop into functional entities. Most of these organizational changes are carefully drafted in response to human resources policies and standards. Organizations continue to change due to external factors that impinge upon them. The global environment is faced with constant competition from competitors and this makes organizations to constantly change in order to be compatible with the industry. Excluding the issue of competition, global economic conditions contribute to companies change in methods of operation. Other factors that make organizations to change include changes in science and technology which have driven the global market in terms of Human Resources thus they tend to cope with new ways of doing the same things thus a shift of strategy. As the companies emerge to new era, there is growth in level of operations and complexity thus this makes organizations to change in order to become imperative to competitive market. This concept makes the management to adopt new methodologies that lead the business to new hierarchies and innovative executive structures. Finally, changes in government legislations, force the organization to adopt new changes. This requires ability and capacity on the part of the organization to fiddle with and shift gears accordingly. Other reasons that make contribute to organizational changes include the aspect of Mergers and Acquisitions, changes in the company Strategic Refocus or adoption of new business processes, and when new structural changes in administration emerge (Gibb, 1979, pg 43).

          Change in an organization is very important in that it ensures efficient and effective methods, and techniques are used in achieving the organization goals and objectives. Changes in organizations assists the management to identify and rearrange their priorities hence ensure proper methods are effected to address them. The untimely stages of a good organization change establish effective strategic planning that entails review of organization’s mission and objectives. This concept provides significant basis for future analysis and planning. Eventually, it also spells out the organization responsibility and what ought to be done to fulfill them. Effective organization change enables the organization management to carry out controlled modifications that brings out the current performance culture that is in line with global requirements. Changes also help the organization to produce products that are compatible with global markets, customer needs and requirements, and that meets global standards (Kumar, 2003, pg 57).

                              2.2 Critical success factors for successful Organisational Change

        Knowledge and Understanding of elements of change within an organization, is integral to administration of change initiative. For success of any organizational change, the following critical success factors must be there, leadership commitment and team work; development of clear vision and strategy, effective communication between the management and the employees, employee’s involvement and recognition and employees’ development. Leadership refers to the progression of social influence which an individual can sign up in aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. Leadership techniques are the most important critical success factors for successful organizational change (McGrath, et al, 2000, pg 43). Leadership erudite from mentors or learned in conferences and mostly exist as part of individuals intrinsic personal leadership skill developed over years, in simple terms, leadership refers to the process of influencing the performance of another individual while entirely respecting the liberty of that person. Leadership commitment in an organization necessitates one to practice dominance and take charge. The most important concept of effective leadership is the close link between the leader and the adherents, which over and over again determines the accomplishment of the leader’s mission in promoting effective organizational change. The eventual commitment of leaders in an organization is exclusive in managing the aspects of change. From time to time, leaders are charged with the responsibility of providing others with revelations or visions motivate and direct others to success. Leadership commitments necessitate one to practice dominance and take charge over issues relating to organizational change. The most important concept of effective leadership that make change work is the close link between the leader and the adherents, which over and over again determines the accomplishment of the leader’s mission. Regrettably, this leader-adherents relationship cannot be established in a simple formula. Without motivation and involvement from both participants, the link cannot be effectual. In most circumstances, Leaders must be obliged to give an additional effort to reach out to followers in order to instigate and develop this alliance that is so critical to the achievement of goals. The organization leaders encounter special challenges as they try to communicate and interact with their clique and potential followers to understand and know what they think and what they are supposed to do, this issue is the reason why the concept of effective communication comes in (Cox, 1994,pg 63).In every organization, the decisions that are made tend to have an implication on the overall performance of the organization .Regardless of the decision made; it involves use of money and teamwork. Cooperation and the concept of people working together is an important element that should be provided and implemented by both the employer and employees in order to achieve successful organizational change. Technically in relation to issues of organizational change, no leader can be triumphant in changing the behavior of other people in the organization unless the people being led trust the leader. The foundation of that trust is the established credence that the leader values and respects the beliefs of each follower and is directed by what is fair to all (Kluckhohn & Strodtbeck, 1961, pg 55).

     Any form of teamwork activities in promoting successful organizational change, critically depends on task specificity and value expected. According to some scholars, teamwork is a distinctive feature of change; teamwork at the organization assembly line promotes work actions and improves the production process. Concepts of teamwork improve communication and integrative work. Currently in most work environment, the aspect of working together to get a particular assignment done and completed is nonexistent as many co- workers become acquainted outside their workplaces and if it’s there the outcome of the assignment done is not satisfactory. When a firm is faced with employees who don’t want to work, the firm or organization ends up delegating duties to other hardworking employees and this affects teamwork in workplaces because an employee is imposed to do a particular work that others fail to do or complete. Generally it can be very stressful, hard and utterly disgraceful because not only does the department work ethics look terrible on the employees, but to the company as well. There are definite characteristics to bear in mind when knowing the principles of working together or teamwork. The most fundamental factor in working together is foundation. Knowing the position which every employee is placed in the team can help employees provide the work they’re strong in; by doing this, assignments can be finished on time and without any tribulations (Ohmae & Kenichi, 1988, pg 53).

        The concept of involvement, recognition and respect for one another is also very important factor. No employee or employer would like to associate or want to work with an individual that is insensitive and rude towards everyone in the workplace. People being able to show professionalism and discipline in workplaces can provide essential considerations that can help the work environment run efficiently and promote effective organizational change. Employees and employers working together are fundamental in that the organization is able to deliver guidelines for effective organizational change without problems of employee’s resistance to change. Generally Employee involvement and concept of employee working together enable people to make proper decisions about their work. This employee involvements, employee empowerment and teambuilding approaches increases allegiance and foster ownership among workers hence maximize firm value and allow swift transition to organization changes (Porter & Michael ,1980,pg 31).

      Development of clear vision and strategy also promote successful organizational change. Given that most organizations understand the definitive objective of business is to increase its value over time, it makes sense for them to establish a management system and strategy that embraces that key objective that is enshrined to build company value. Effective visions and strategies makes organization changes successful and build business value by increasing cash flows while reducing risks through teamwork and workers working together (Repa, 1994, pg 38).

      Another factor that promotes successful organizational change is the concrete aspect of awareness of norms. The process of allowing employees to participate in the creation and development of new standards promote a sense of wellbeing and respect in the part of the employee and this encourage positive development of organization change. The issues of Industrial and organizational Psychology in relation to organizational change improve Group cohesiveness and promote effective administration of duties and there is delegation of duties hence workers are not over burden to do a particular piece of work .due to this concept Workers tend to concentrate on jobs in which they have technical skills or which they are experts (Rush, 2000, pg 56).

                         2.3 Human resource function’s role in organizational change

           The Human Resources function entails an assortment of activities, and the most significant among them is the role of analyzing and accessing what employees and employers needs. Human resource is also involved in systems improvement, strategic management and planning, and effective execution of organizations growth and developments policies. Human resources role in organization change have affirmative outcomes in the organization performance and profitability. They are also served with the function of deciding and ensuring employees are performing as per the agreed terms, they deal with issues relating to employees training and development, they ensure management and personnel practices are conventional to labor and ethical regulations. Human resource activities as well include managing employee payments and benefits, records and personnel guiding principles. Human resources entail involvement of employees from different parts of the world ranging from people of different races, men and women. Diversity of employees in an organization helps in the involvement of talents from different areas of the world .These individuals in places of work also create markets in their turf areas since many people would like to identify themselves with a product that comes from one of their own. With frequent turnovers, constant assessment of effectiveness and practicability of the organization chiefly depends on human resources professionals who often champion change. The knowledge and capacity of human resources to achieve triumphant change strategies make them outstandingly valued. The human resources contribute to the organization performance and productivity by constantly assessing the efficiency of the HR function. Personnel’s support organizational change by identifying the organization core responsibility which entails it goals and objectives, vision, and action plans. Human resources are also served with the function of determining necessary measures that will make the organization succeed in its function and duties. By showing and advocating the proposed changes, human resources increase the organization’s stability and make it easier to delegate the impacts of change to employees (Robertson & Smith, 1985, pg 125).

                Since most of changes are intensely personal, human resources first identify and address “employees’ problems” to avoid internal conflict which would lead to resistance to change. One of the best tools human resources use for shifting the status quo, involves encouraging and rewarding the type of behavior change and policies they are trying to promote. This technique encourages effective organizational change because exhibit optimistic sway on the success of the change initiative. The role of human resources in organizational change is always analogous to the needs of the changing organization. Since human resources understand so well that organizational change can cause a mix of problems like anxiety, resistance and fear, and also since they understand change is inevitable in any organization, they correspond to these issues by driving organizational change themselves thus they make transition smoother for workers. The critical role for human resources takes place at some stage in the pre-announcement stage of any organizational change. Here the HR establishes adequate planning processes in order to avoid problems of not giving the process enough time to implement the initiative. Human resources also promote smooth organizational change by implementing the concepts of Organizational Development, also acknowledged as Organizational Effectiveness Wall, (Stephen & Rye, 2009, pg 56).

          Through Organization development, an organization is able to establish and develop effective internal structures that allow the company to perform and sustain its functions. Human resources ensure there is effective transition to organizational change through improvement of communication between the management and the employees and among the employees themselves, also it helps the organizational management I in training and developing personnel in order to conform to new change methodologies, it promotes and nurtures emotional Intelligence of employees and leaders it organizes coaching opportunities for both employees and the management and finally it lead and implement strategic planning  and goals and objectives settings. In human resource perspective, Organizational change is thought to be an aspect of increasing the organization goal and objectives, and changing the way an organization thinks in pursuing its functions. By encouraging and implementing change policies, the human resource provides successful transition of organization changes. These advocacies in part of human resources motivates the employees and relieve their constant worry for the reason that they have joint forces with the management team in scheming the organizations ‘s new future. Aspects of human resources also encourage the workforce to work diligently and this ensures smooth organizational change. Since organizational change programs necessitates steady pace  and long periods of time, human resource adopt systematic approach that ensure accomplishments of changes that that build ongoing support and commitment of the employees.
In conclusion, Successful change programs necessitates motivating workers , setting goals and objectives  and establishing resources necessary to achieve those goals and objectives (Ting-Toomey,1999,pg 98).

                        2.4 Features of effective organization and change management.

             Organizational effectiveness refers to the concept of ways in which an organization runs and how effective it is in achieving its outcomes.  Effective organization refers to an organization in which resources are managed properly, coordinated and effectively utilized. Organizations are in dire need to continuously evaluate business processes and reinvent plans in order to achieve efficiency and exploit the full potential of the available resources. To achieve this end, organizations are required to invest in distinct and defined processes that are flexible, in order to become accustomed to changing business requirements. Organizations require the capability to realign processes and take advantage of opportunities that arise as a result of changing market environment. An organization’s effectiveness also depends on its open competence and ethics (Herzberg, 1966, pg 34).The relationship between these three concepts is uniquely simultaneous .Ethics is a core factor found within organizational effectiveness. Any given organization must demonstrate respect and equity to allow open and transparent competence with the participating members. Along with ethics and open competence, management can finally achieve their intended goals. Organizational effectiveness is a theoretical concept and is essentially impossible to measure. Organizational change management consists of activities that ensure goals and objectives are consistently met in an effective and efficient manner. Change management mainly focuses on overall performance of the organization, a section, and employees. Change concepts are established to meet the learning and business development that are needed for specialty retailers and their suppliers. These concepts provide innovative, realistic and reasonably priced products and services, exclusively designed with the retail user in mind. These Concepts make possible the changes in perception that allow individuals to improve their work environments and their lives (Goethals & Burns, 2004, pg 45).

                           2.5 Human resource role in staff and strategy development

         The Human Resources function entails an assortment of activities, and the most significant among them is the role of analyzing and accessing what employees and employers needs. Human capital is the most vital asset of any organizations regardless of size and capital base. Without this resource, everyday organization functions may cease to exist. Before transition to organizational change, staff needs education and training which enables them to conduct their functions efficiently. Human resource is also served with the responsibility of providing short and long term development that gives employees chances for personal growth and development (Markides & Constantinos , 1999,pg 78).Effective human resource development speed up and develop decision making processes, reduces the work load in places of work, encourage teamwork among employees and the management, improves morale of workforce especially when they are involved in decision making, and finally it convey sustainable organizational changes to leadership and employees issues. The benefits of training and development established by human resource assist the employer and workers to meet existing and future organizational demands, development and knowledge sharing, which eventually expands individual and organizational performance. The concepts of strategic development are formulated by human resources and they adversely involve setting the core endeavors of the organization. Aspect of strategic development assists organizations to recognize and address strategic issues affecting them especially the ones involved in growth and development. Human resource contributes to strategic development by providing and training personnel that are involved in strategic management. It also chooses appropriate strategies and programs that are aimed at achieving its goals and objectives. Human resource is also served with the responsibility of implementing adequate strategies that facilitate achievement of organization projections. Strategic development in training and development of employees encourages development and achievement of organizational objectives and goals (Eccles & Nohria, 1996, pg 56).

                 2.6 Factors that lead to unsuccessful organisational change

        Workplaces consist of employees from all walks of life and being of such diversities problems are set to emerge especially during layoffs and transition to organizational changes. Problems at workplace are many and some of them prevent organizations from implementing successful organizational change. Majority of these issues relate to interaction between the employees and the management and others between employees themselves. Problems involving the change management and those prevent organizations for implementing successful organization change are mostly performance based, discipline based or both. Many of Performance-based problems in workplaces are displayed by substandard work performance, linking purposely to deficiencies in job duties and organization objectives. Relating to workers themselves, key problems include gossiping, fear and resistance to change, lack of commitment; lack of communication, lack of respect to fellow workers and lack of proper time management and discrimination. At individual level we have problems emerging from job burnouts or exhaustions mostly arising in circumstances when one is compelled to work harder to hold onto his job especially in periods of layoffs and transitions to organizational changes, also arises when workers work extra hard in periods of leaner staffs, when one is not rewarded for work done and when one is in unsuitable jobs. Problems of untrained employees also limit the organization in achieving its set goals and objectives (Denison, 1990, pg 45).

        The concept of motivation is important in achieving effective organizational change, when this is lacking in an organization, the organization is unable to fulfill its functions. Generally Motivation involves both feelings or emotions and thinking or cognition. Lack of Motivation consists of combinations of an individual frustrations and energy that are directed towards achieving other goals and objectives unlike those intended for an organization. Motivation can either be intrinsic – satisfaction; or extrinsic – goal obtainment. Normally not all people are motivated by similar things, and after periods of times these motivations may change. Other problems that prevent organization from undertaking smooth organization changes include the issue of Unrealistic expectations where the management implement certain policies and fail to meet the organizational goals and objectives. Lack of clear direction and authority from the management makes it impossible to implement organizational changes. The perception of change plan is essential after application quality concepts. In most situations, people don’t like change because they always don’t like changed. When the concepts of change come into view, fear and resistance to change follow – often despite its obvious benefits. People fight against the concepts of change because they: fear to lose something of great importance, or they don’t understand the concepts of change and their implications or they don’t find the concepts making sense to them or they find it difficult to cope with speed or level of change. Generally, its human nature to resist and avoid change. Resistance to change can be averted via: Commitment: From the CEO to the janitor, all workers should be committed to the change plan. One pessimist on the leadership team can ruin the entire process. A change mandate: Change should not be debatable. With tender esteem it must be made clear to every employee that that change is not an alternative, it is a requirement. Input: people affected by the changes should be given chances to air their opinions. Accountability: Every individual in the organization should be held responsible for applying his or her personal change activity. Not meeting the responsibility must carry or recognition. The organization should put mechanisms that honor the successful implementation of the change plan as well. Evaluation: the management should examine the success of implementation at designed intervals .evaluation is a tactical decision that is designed to measure success over time and make corrections for unexpected consequences. The organizational change strategy should be structured in such a way that it supports the organizations overall corporate strategy. It should describe all the necessary tactics and processes that are important to hold up the corporate strategy and display authentic and measurable results (Schneider, 2000, pg 67).

                                     2.7 Solutions to Unsuccessful Organization Change

              In all organization settings people always view change aspects and problems as divergence from normal operations. In all workplace settings, change problems do arise frequently. These problems depends chiefly on the type of work done, change requirements and can be specific to a specific field or they could differ depending on the level of change. Regardless of problems that’s erupts in workplaces, there are always solutions to these   problems. Most of the times Lack of communication between workers and management is sometimes seen as the cause of many workplace problems especially the inability to implement change. This may imply there is a lack of proper communication between supervisors and workers, among workers or between workers and the customers. No matter what the cause of the problems in the organization is, the following concepts will solve them:-People should understand that change is inevitable at work-.with developments in science and technology, organizations are bound to comply with global requirements to prevent production of goods and services that are compatible to consumer needs (Baron ; David, 2008,pg 35).Conflicts should be handled as soon as possible-the management should resolve problems when they start to prevent them from increasing in future.

         At times, Conflicts at work happen not from anything that was said but from something that wasn’t said. It’s necessary to break off the “waiting blame game” before it gets to that point. Problems of resistances to change are effectively solved by workforce education and augmented and sustained communications. Problems of untrained employees come in handy when they are unable to operate as required in the contract. Producing right products that solves genuine problems is important in business world since that is what you the company will be selling. Production of half quality products and services will not promote companies profile and this will create problems between the management and workers. Proper implementation of the concept can resolve workplace confrontations between the employees and the management. If you use machine of good quality it may take short periods of time to get the work done and since time equals to money the company productivity and out up increases Wrong methods of relations between employees and the management can be risky and dangerous. Employees are a very vital asset in development of a business in that they can contribute to its failure or success. Organizations can solve conflicts that inhibit organizational change by establishing proper channel of communication and every worker getting assigned duties that favor his or her expertise .Finally money is the most important factor of management, in that it’s used to implement all other functions of an organization. Money can be used to solve workplace problems related with poor pay and rewards for efforts. Workers motivated with good pay packages work well than workers with poor packages. Good productivity in terms of performance increases company yields and happy employees (Sioukas, 2003, pg 60).

                                2.8 Reasons why change is important in Universities

       The rate of organizational change in universities has increased in recent years, and this rapid development is as a result of frequent innovations and advances in science and technology. Development in science and technology has made many institutions of higher education to change old ways of dealing with educational matters. the growth of internet has enabled students and teaching staff to access easier and cheap knowledge .changing global market has forced teaching institutions to develop curriculum that enhance self employment due to overcrowding and limited job opportunities. The aspect of new problems in the world, especially problems resulting from HIV AIDS, global warming, economic recession and civil wars has made institution of higher learning to change their strategies and concentrate on programs that promote international peace and relations. Change in institution of higher learning has led to changes in education system, that include emergence of specialized institutions, changes in structures of funding ,transparency in handling of institution issues, and substantial curriculum developments. Continuous Expansion of higher education especially due to high number of potential students has led to improvements in effective administrative services, along with better variety and elasticity in degree programs. Many institution of high learning are currently trying to implement the use Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR) as an organizational change management strategy in order to obtain improvements in service delivery. Change in institutions of higher learning is significant in that it makes institutions concentrates in programs in which they are specialized in. Organizational change makes the school management and students to relate well since there are no strict channels to present their problems and suggestions. Effective organizational change has reduced universities strikes which where obstinate previously (Hamel, Gary, & Prahalad, 2000, pg 56).

   2.9 The process to implement successful organizational change in universities

             Organizational Behavior Problems can be quite disastrous when they occur in an organization and worse when we are dealing with universities. These problems occur in universities and tend to affect the way individuals relate with each other, and how groups will act amongst themselves within an organization. This impacts negatively on the people relationships in the organization so that the institutions are unable to meet their goals. It is therefore necessary that organizations can be doing researches in order to note these organizational behavioral problems and see how they can be mitigated. Once that has been done, it becomes very easy to achieve the necessary relationships through the achievement of human objectives, then meet the organizational objectives, and finally ensure that the mission of the organization if fulfilled. Today effective management of organization change in universities touches on the workforce diversity, Global environment and managing for quality technology. Studies shows diverse workforce in learning institution presents managers of universities with concrete problems of managing conflicts that come from diversity in a functional manner. In the past few years, the world has observed substantial change within its higher learning system. These changes have resulted as a product of emergence of new types of institutions, changes in structures of funding and learning fees, efficient accessibility, development in science and technology and ample curriculum developments. The rate of organizational change in universities has increased in recent years and the patterns of demand for higher education are likely to change. With these developments, questions of how to manage change in higher learning institutions has become a key issue for individuals served with the function of delivering and managing them. With this concept in mind, institutions have refused to sit down and ignore external changes and influences. Organizational change in institutions of higher learning has caused and in turn contributed by radical alterations in the world’s universities traditional boundaries. The traditional structures of doing things have been supplemented with fiber optics and cyberspace. Past patterns of age, education interests, pre college counseling and preparation are today something of the past. Current Degree programs are now met with function whereby programs are established to meet specific needs of students (Bernard, 1990, pg 23). Implementation of successful organizational change in universities can be achieved by ensuring that positive behaviors are achieved through a dynamic culture that determined the necessary leadership, the right channels of communication, and ensuring that all the players in the organization have an idea of what their mission is and how it will be important to the people. There should also be the necessary satisfaction at both individual and organizational level so that there can be an overall organizational growth (Gordon, 2001, pg 32). All these issues can be successful if combined in an intelligent manner. So as to ensure that all the problems are solved for once and for all, it is necessary that there is the systematic application of the necessary behavioral sciences and theories at all the relevant levels in the universities. With this organizational changes being evident, the aspect of managing change is revealing about special distinctiveness of these institutions. Institutions of higher learning are affected by their own environment in ways that they manage change, formulate strategies, make decisions and execute them. Successful change management  make institutions buffer  their facility from external  strives and  promote smooth adjustments  to change requiring minimal disruption. In the context of managing change, many institutions of higher learning experience problems in establishing a fit between unpredictable and external environment, internal  structures  and trajectory of their own institution, transparency issues, and  methods of securing funding. This problem in managing concepts of change result from lack of strategic leadership and decision making and often lead to implementation of unsuccessful organizational change. The path to change in universities and other institution of higher learning are fraught with traps and often keeps the management from recognizing and using change. For effective organizational change management, there is a need for change in daily institution structures, cultures and routines. Effective change in part of the institution management is achieved through considerable planning from a solid conceptual base ,building change support programs among change minded  workforce, development of an attitude that view change as a  positive quality that add to organizational greatness and implementation of its core goals and objectives. Creation of change urgency and receptivity to change also makes institutions implement successful organizational change (Hall, 1983, pg 103).

             Managing change in institutions of higher educations involves activities that ensure goals and objectives of an organization are consistently being followed in an effective and efficient manner. Change management mainly concentrates on performance and of the organization. Many cultures exist in universities but the concepts of behavior still remain. Analytically, managing change is described as a strategic and integrated approach, that increase the effectiveness and efficiency of organizations by getting better the performance of the employees who work in them and by establishing the capacity of teams and individual contributors. Managing change tends to get employees to reconcile personal goals and objectives with those of the organization. It also helps an organization to turn marginal business around and increases profitability and productivity of any organization. For any organization, Management of employees or system performance makes it easier the advancement of the effective implementation of strategic and operational goals. There is a clear and instantaneous relationship between use of change management programs and improved institutions and organizational results (Eisenhardt & Kathleen., 1997, pg 56).

            In order to promote efficient management of any given institution, the best approach will be in coming up with ways of managing organizational change, through which all the individuals in the institution or organization will be mentored towards such a development. This will end up increasing performance and productivity thus being able to see majority of the employees getting the greatest benefits from the very efficient management in the organization. At the moment, change is inevitable and it is expected by people at all levels and is increasing to be a point of differentiation. When developing differentiation and change strategies, organizations should keep in mind that educational quality is still differentiator in the world of higher education and it’s a prerequisite (Bruhn, 1996, pg 56)

                                                        Conclusion

           Human resources contribute significantly in managing organizational change. It’s through the concepts of human resources where all the individuals in the institution or organization will be mentored towards such change development. The concept of Change generally entails innovation, which involves the basic idea of introducing something new into the organization. Organizational change concentrates on improving existing structures and entails activities that are focused on strengthening and developing the organization productivity and sustaining its subsistence. Change management strategies in the organization in relation to aspects of human resources should be optimistically mentored so as to augment cohesive groups while promoting partnership and smooth transition of change. This will be the best approach towards ensuring that the employees benefit from the working experience offered in the organization. As we develop, it’s natural and necessary to ponder the challenges facing changes in organizations. Many honored ways exist for making consistent market predictions, and other methods remain for maintaining high quality services and products. Quality improvements through change are imperative to running a business, institution or organization the elegant way. To coerce accountability for the quality process through the ranks of an organization, the management teams should gauge individual hard work and contributions to the quality process as part of every employee’s intermittent review. In conclusion, managing change is a significant issue for any organization that what to be market leaders.

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