Wilson’s Anatomy and Physiology flash card Essay

Diet and Digestion


Teenage Athlete

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


2 pieces brown toast, peanut butter, milk

2 chopped wheat, orange juice

Poached egg of toast, milk


Cheese salad, pitta staff of life, yogurt

Tuna sandwich on whole wheat staff of life, banana

Salmon salad, Whole repast crackers, yogurt


Lean minced beef, tomato pasta

Chicken chest, baked murphy, Brassica oleracea italica and carrots

Cod loin, boiled murphies and assorted veggies

Pregnant adult female in her 30’s

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


Whole grain cereals, glass of milk

2 pieces whole wheat toast, orange juice

Raisin bran cereal, glass of tomato juice


Chicken chest, green beans, strawberries

Salmon, Brassica oleracea italica, yogurt

Vegetable soup, whole wheat staff of life axial rotation, banana


Pitta staff of life with tuna and salad

Baked murphy and beans

Lean minced beef chili, brown rice

Aged adult male in infirmary

Day 1

Day 2

Day 3


Porridge, banana, orange juice

Weetabix, milk

Poached egg, brown toast, orange juice


Fish pie, Brassica oleracea italica, carrots, apple

Chicken chest, Brassica oleracea botrytis, green beans, boiled murphies

Stewed beef casserole, green beans, carrots. Stewed plums and custard


Baked murphy, cheese and beans, fruit cocktail

Cheese salad sandwich, yogurt

Egg mayonnaise brown axial rotation, banana

B )

The 3 twenty-four hours repast program for a male teenage athlete needs to dwell of plentifulness of protein, saccharides and fiber, this can so supply the right foods for the musculuss and forestall any clean hurts. A balanced sum of Ca that is found in dairy merchandises and will assist to keep healthy castanetss as he is turning. Supplying the organic structure with nutrients that are natural in sugars, such as yogurts and fruit will replace the energy proteins that the adolescent will utilize whilst exercise and will forestall the adolescent from going tired whilst set abouting sporting activities. An active adolescent should hold a day-to-day Calorie consumption of around 2500-3050 depending on how active he is. This is higher than the expected consumption of a adolescent miss. This is because male childs have more musculus to provide foods to, compared to misss.

The Calorie consumption for an anticipant female parent does non necessitate to alter until the last six months of gestation where the consumption additions by 300 Calories more a twenty-four hours. Although the Calories consumption does non alter quickly from the normal recommended 2000 Calories a twenty-four hours for adult females, the nutrients that a pregnant adult female does devour must incorporate all the right foods to back up her organic structure whilst carry an unborn kid. Foods that are high in vitamin Bc will back up the growing of a babe, these are found in nutrients such as orange juice, Spinacia oleracea, and Brassica oleracea italica. Eating plentifulness of fruit and veggies that are high in fiber will assist forestall with side effects of gestation such as irregularity. Dairy merchandises are besides of import to provide your babe with Ca and maintain the female parents castanetss healthy during gestation.

An aged patient in infirmary should be holding a nutritionary diet to help their recovery and discharge from infirmary. In general, an aged adult male should be holding an consumption of 2000-2200 Calories a twenty-four hours, or more if they are set abouting regular activities. A patient in infirmary will necessitate to devour nutrients that contain vitamins to replace any malnutrition gained from going unwell. It is of import for the patient to non hold a big sum of salt in their diet as when an aged patient is bed bound they are at hazard of kidney jobs and hence should besides hold a regular fluid consumption. A balanced diet that contains Fe from meat, oils from fish and protein from poulet will be a good beginning of natural vitamins along with fruit and veggies.


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Mamas Health ( 2002 ) . How many Calories should I eat? Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.mamashealh.com/pregnancy/pregcalories.asp. Last accessed 02-07-2014

NHS ( 2013 ) . How many Kilogram calories do adolescents necessitate? Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/chq/pages/how-many-calories-do-teenagers-need.aspx? CatergoryID=51 & A ; SubCategoryID=165. Last accessed 02-07-2014

NHS ( 2011 ) . Eat good over 60. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/livewell/over60s/pages/nutritionover60.aspx. Last accessed 02-07-2014

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Waugh.A and Grant.A ( 2010 ) . Ross and Wilson anatomy and Physiology in wellness and unwellness. 11th erectile dysfunction. Edinburgh: Church Livingstone Elsevier. 277-310


Type 2 diabetes is effected by the nutrient consumed as patients with type 2 diabetes have jobs with the manner the organic structure produces insulin. Insulin is a endocrine that has a map to command the sugar within the blood, it transfers glucose from the blood to the cells, where it can so be converted to energy. Patients who have type 2 diabetes may hold an insulin lack ; this means insulin is non efficaciously produced and so the glucose degree is non controlled. Insulin opposition is another cause, where the insulin produced is unable to be used by the organic structure. When a patient with either insulin lack or opposition has a high sugar diet, glucose will construct up in the blood and cause harm to the organic structure, such as blood vass, nervousnesss and variety meats which can so take to other wellness jobs or even amputation of limbs.

Atherosclerosis is a status that develops from indurating of the arterias which is caused by plaque edifice up, which so hardens and reduces the O through the blood flow. Hardening of the arterias is a natural procedure that occurs with age but the procedure is accelerated when nutrients that have a high dressed ore of concentrated fats are consumed. Such nutrients include sausages, bacon, processed meats, butter, pick, biscuits and bars. Eating these nutrients lead to bad cholesterin, besides known as LDL ( Low denseness lipoprotein ) . LDL has a map to transport the cholesterin from the liver to the cells where needed. When there is more than adequate cholesterin for the cells, it builds up in the walls of the arterias. This remains here as fatty sedimentations besides known as plaque. Other causes of coronary artery disease can be smoking, high blood force per unit area, uncontrolled diabetes, fleshiness, intoxicant, household history or ethnicity. As arterias are all over the organic structure, blockages that occur can impact the encephalon, limbs, pelvic girdle and variety meats such as kidneys. This so can ensue in other wellness jobs or even decease.

Ricketss disease effects the castanetss denseness and is most common in kids as they are developing. The bone growing relies of vitamin D which 90 % is produced of course by the organic structure in the kidney via ultraviolet radiation absorbed from natural sunshine. This sunlight coverts 7-dihydrocholestrol into vitamin D through the tegument. Vitamin D is so converted to calcitriol ; a endocrine found in the kidney, that absorbs Ca and P. It controls the degrees of Ca and phosphate within the kidney and bone. The other 10 % of vitamin D is consumed through nutrients that contain high sums of animate being fats such as, milk cheese, meat and fish. Whether it is consumed or absorbed, vitamin D goes through the same procedure. When undernourishment or a vitamin D lack occurs in a kid, it effects the calcification procedure ; where the immature bones become mature. This leads to cram malformations such as bowed legs and knock articulatio genuss.


Better Health ( 2014 ) . Rickets. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Rickets. Last accessed 03-07-2014

Diabetess UK ( 2012 ) . What is diabetes? Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.diabetes.org.uk/guide-to-diabetes/what-is-diabetes/what-is-type-2-diabetes. Last accessed 03-07-2014

Diabetess ( 2014 ) . Diet for type 2 diabetes. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.diabetes.co.uk/diet-for-type2-diabetes.html. Last accessed 03-07-2014

Faqs.org ( 2014 ) . Rickets. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.faqs.org/nutrition/pre-sma/Rickets.html. Last accessed 03-07-2014

NHLBI ( 2014 ) . What is Atherosclerosis? Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/atherosclerosis/ . Last accessed 03-07-2014

NHS ( 2013 ) . Diabetes type 2. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/conditions/diabetes-type2/pages/introduction.aspx. Last accessed 03-07-2014

NHS ( 2013 ) . Rickets-causes. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/conditions/rickets/pages/causes.aspx. Last accessed 03-07-2014

NHS ( 2014 ) . Atherosclerosis-causes. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nhs.uk/conditions/Atherosclerosis/pages/causes.aspx. Last accessed 03-07-2014


A )

Digestion is an of import procedure because it is the manner a organic structure receives the right sum of foods for energy and endurance. When nutrient is consumed, the foods are absorbed into cells for usage or storage. Absorption is the procedure that largely take topographic point in jejunum and the ileum within the little bowel. The liner of the little bowel is called the villi and is made up of bantam finger like projections. The villi increases its surface country so soaking up can take topographic point at a faster rate. Assimilation takes topographic point within the villi and is the procedure of transporting chemicals from nutrients and taken to cells around the organic structure via the blood watercourse.


Ivy-rose ( 2014 ) . Overview of the digestive procedure. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ivy-rose.co.uk/HumanBody/Digestion/DigestiveSystem-BasicStages.php. Last accessed 10/07/2014

University of Leeds ( 2014 ) . Digestive System. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy8.html. Last accessed 10/07/2014

B )

Organ/Body Part



Mouth/Buccal Pit

This is where chew takes topographic point ; mastication and grinding of nutrients. Saliva helps the nutrient become soft. The lingua moves the nutrient around the oral cavity as it is chewed and broken down into smaller parts

Make nutrients little plenty to come in the gorge. The lingua shuts of the air manner as get downing occurs to forestall nutrient traveling into the trachea


An nonvoluntary propulsion to travel the nutrient towards the tummy

Transportation system of the nutrient to the tummy


Rugae relaxes and allows the tummy country to spread out and let nutrients into the tummy. Foods are assorted with digestive juice to travel the nutrients into the duodenum

The acid within the tummy helps clean the nutrient of any bacteriums.

Small Intestine

Here emulsification procedure takes topographic point by the gall acids interrupting down larger molecules to smaller 1s so that they can be absorbed into the blood watercourse. It breaks down the foods within the nutrients

This is where the organic structure receives energy for usage and storage

Large bowel

Absorbs most leftover H2O. Propels faeces towards the rectum with the usage of haustral churning

To transport the fecal matters to the rectum for disposal


The anal sphincter becomes relaxed so the fecal matters can go through

To let the organic structure to dispose of the unwanted from the organic structure

C )

Name of digestive juice

Site of production

Enzymes in digestive juice

Functions of the enzymes

Bile juice

Found in the Gall Bladder

Bile salt

Aids with the emulsification procedure of interrupting down fats so they can be digested easy by lipase ; an enzyme within the pancreatic juice

Pancreatic juice

Found in the Pancreas

– Trypsinogen

– Chymotrypsin

– Steapsin

– Carboxypolypeptidase

– Pancreatic Amylase

Trypsinogen and chymotrypsin both activated by Entirokinase ; an enzyme within the enteric juice. Their map is to interrupt down protein into smaller peptide fragments, which is besides the map of pepsin.

Steapsin coverts fats into fatty acids and glycerin.

Carboxypolypeptidase is responsible for change overing peptides into aminic acid.

The axial rotation of Pancreatic amylase is to digest amylum. Amylase is besides found within the spit, it works on saccharide starches such as staff of lifes murphies and pastas.

Intestinal juice

Found in the walls of the bowel

– Entirokinase

– Eripsin

– Maltase

– Invertase

– Lactase

Entirokinase is responsible for triping Trypsinogen and Trypsin.

Eripsin coverts the polypeptides into aminic acids.

Maltase has a axial rotation to digest malt sugar to glucose.

Sucrase digests sucrose into fructose and glucose.

Lactase controls the digestion of lactose into Galactose and Glucose.


Biology online ( 2006 ) . Digestive enzymes. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //biology-online.org/articles/digestive_enzymes.html. Last accessed 10/07/2014

Classs Midlands tech ( 2014 ) . The digestive system. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //classes.midlandstech.com/carterp/courses/bio211/chap23/chap23.htm. Last accessed 10/07/2014

Digestive ( 2013 ) . The digestive system and how it works. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/ . Last accessed 10/07/2014

University of Leeds ( 2014 ) . Digestive System. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.leeds.ac.uk/chb/lectures/anatomy8.html. Last accessed 10/07/2014


A )

B )

Digestive System Organ

Function ( s )


The liver has a map to fade out fat. This is achieved by the digestive juice called gall that is produced within the liver. The gall is stored within the saddle sore vesica between repasts and when nutrient is consumed, gall is squeezed through canals that connect the saddle sore vesica and liver to the little bowel. When the gall is assorted with nutrient it dissolves any fat into the little bowel where it can be digested by the enteric and pancreatic enzymes. It besides plays an of import function with proteins and sugar. It controls the sum of animal starch that is stored and when it is released for energy. Foods are filtered through the liver before any other variety meats. Its blood flow is received through the portal vena instead than an arteria, this is due to the sum of foods that are digested via the venas. This is how the liver is able to command the usage and storage of foods.


The pancreas has two maps which are endocrinal and exocrine. Endocrine is responsible for bring forthing endocrines to modulate blood sugar. Exocrine has a function to bring forth enzymes that digest nutrient. The enzymes produced have different functions such as amylase to breakdown saccharides and starches into glucose, peptidase converts protein into aminic acids and lipase break down fats. Whilst in the pancreas, these enzymes are protected in a wrap until they travel down the pancreatic canal to the duodenum and one time out of the protective bed these enzymes can go active. The pancreas besides secretes a hydrogen carbonate that has a high PH and is used to equilibrate out the acidic substance called chyme that so travels through the little bowel.


The gall bladders chief map is to hive away gall ; the liquid created in the liver and is transported via the common gall canal into the duodenum. There is a musculus sphincter situated at the gap of the duodenum this opens and closes to command the flow of gall into the duodenum. When the musculus sphincter is closed, the gall travels back through the bile canal, towards the cystic canal and into the gall bladder. Whilst the gall is stored within the gall bladder, 90 % of the H2O within in the gall is removed to let it to go more powerful which helps the gall map expeditiously.


Digestive ( 2013 ) . The digestive system and how it works. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/ . Last accessed 10/07/2014

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Open Stax College ( 2013 ) .

The digestive piece of land consists of four beds and is about 9 metres in length. It has gaps at each terminal that starts at the unwritten pit and ends at the anus. The basic construction is the same throughout the whole piece of land although it varies in each part depending on the map of each procedure of digestion. The four beds of the piece of land are mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serous membrane. The mucous membrane is besides known as the mucose membrane. Epithelium is within in the membrane and has direct contact with any ingested nutrient. In the damp countries of the digestive piece of land such as ; oral cavity, gorge and the anal canal, the epithelial tissue is non-keratinized graded squamous epithelial tissue where as in the tummy and bowels it is columniform epithelial tissue. The mucous membrane besides has a thin smooth musculus bed called the muscularis mucous membrane that pulls the mucous membrane of the tummy and little bowels into wave like creases besides known as undulating creases. This aids the addition of surface country for digestion and soaking up. Liing beneath the mucous membrane is the submucosa ; this connects the mucous membrane and submucosa and besides consist of blood and lymphatic vass. The muscularis ; found in the little bowel, dwelling of a dual bed of smooth musculus. Its map is to help the motion and chemical digestion of nutrients by the contraction of these two beds. In the oral cavity, anterior gorge, throat and external anal sphincter, the motions are voluntary such as swallowing and laxation, because the muscularis is made up of the skeletal musculus. There are three beds of smooth musculus within the tummy to help the map of churning nutrient. The serous membrane is merely found in the abdominal pit. It secretes a fluid called splanchnic peritoneum that keeps the country moist to forestall clash between musculuss. Connective tissues called tunic, protects and holds in topographic point environing variety meats.


Florida Atlantic University ( 2012 ) . Anatomy of the digestive system. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.fau.pearlashes.com/anatomy/chapter 38/chapter 38.htm. Last accessed 20/07/2014

Open Stax College ( 2013 ) . Overview of the digestive system. Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //cnx.org/content/m46506/latest/ ? collection=col11496/latest. Last accessed 20/07/2014