Analysing the changes in muscle activity between male and female as the power of clench is increased. Essay

Introduction:

Muscle is a type of excitable tissue which has the ability to bring forth and propagate electrical signals called action potencies. In musculuss, the basic functional unit of contraction is a motor unit. A motor unit consists of one motor nerve cell and the several musculus fibers it innervates. On activation of a motor unit, its several musculus fibers generate and conduct electrical urges which cause contraction of musculus. When considered single electromotive force of the urges it’s rather weak but when a group of musculus fibers are considered the electromotive force generated by the musculuss is big plenty to be measured by puting electrodes on the skin surface. The techniques of sensing and measuring of skin electromotive force generated by the implicit in skeletal musculuss is called Electromyography. Two types of electrodes can be used while executing electromyography ( 1 ) Needle electrodes or ( 2 ) Surface electrodes.

Fatigue describes a reversible status in which a musculus is no longer able to bring forth or prolong the expected power end product.1Fatigue is influenced by the strength and continuance of the contractile activity, by whether the musculus fibre is utilizing aerophilic or anaerobiotic metamorphosis, by the composing of the musculus, and by the fitness degree of the person.1

The larning aim of this experiment is to record and analyze the difference between musculus activity between the dominant and non-dominant arm and between male and female as the power of clinch is increased and understand the physiology behind it.

The void hypothesis for this experiment is that musculus activity does non alter with weariness ( 1 ) between dominant arm and non-dominant arm ( 2 ) between males and females. The alternate hypothesis provinces that the musculus activity alterations with weariness ( 1 ) between dominant arm and non-dominant arm ( 2 ) between males and females.

MATERIALS AND METHOD:

For this experiment the stuffs used were as follows BIOPAC electrode lead set ( SS2LA/L ) , BIOPAC disposable vinyl electrodes ( EL503 ) ( 6 electrodes per Subject ) , BIOPAC electrode gel, Tennis Ball, Biopac Student Lab System: BSL 3.7.5 package and MP30 informations acquisition unit and Computer system.

The electrode lead set was connected to impart 1 of the informations acquisition unit. The disposable vinyl electrodes were attached to patient’s weaponries as shown in the figure 1. A little sum of gel is applied on electrode for better conduction. Then utilizing the Biopac Student Lab Software the system was calibrated foremost. During standardization, the topics were asked to squash a tennis ball every bit hard as possible for 5 seconds by dominant and non-dominant custodies for both males and females. Entire standardization took approximately 8 seconds. For the experiment, while entering the EMG the topic was asked to execute clench-release-wait rhythm, keeping for 2 seconds and waiting for two seconds after let go ofing before get downing the following rhythm. Subjects were asked to seek to increase the strength in equal increases such that the 4th clinch had the maximal force. This was done for both dominant and non-dominant arm for all topics.

Figure 1: Electrode arrangement and Lead fond regard

The experiment was performed for 10 topics in total.5 males and 5 females. For analysis, “ Bunchs ” i.e. EMG explosions associated with each clinch were analysed by mensurating the mean millivolt value. The part between two clinchs was besides measured. This was done for dominant and non-dominant arm for all topics. Percentage addition in EMG activity recorded between the weakest clinch and the strongest clinch for both the weaponries was besides calculated.

For farther analysis i.e. to look into the hypothesis two t-tests was performed to cipher difference between the agencies for each group. First, t-test was performed to find the difference in the musculus activity alteration with weariness between dominant and non-dominant manus for all topics. The 2nd t-test performed to find the difference in the musculus activity alteration with weariness between male and female dominant and non-dominant manus.

RESULTS AND ANALYSIS:

First, a mated one tailed t-test was performed to find the difference in the musculus activity alteration with weariness between dominant and non-dominant manus for all topics. A mated t-test was chosen because the dominant and non-dominant arm was from the same topic and a one tailed trial was chosen because the alternate hypothesis suggests that one mean will be greater than other to bespeak whether there is a alteration or non in the musculus weariness between dominant and non-dominant arm. To cipher the weariness, the difference between the strongest clinch and the weakest clinch was taken for every topic. On executing the trial the P value was found to be 0.0623 at significance degree of 0.05. So we failed to reject the void hypothesis.

Capable

Dominant arm ( millivolt-sec)

Non-dominant arm ( millivolt-sec)

1

0.132

0.086

2

0.208

0.137

3

0.215

0.109

4

0.165

0.089

5

0.189

0.193

6

0.190

0.258

7

0.113

0.081

8

0.103

0.099

9

0.138

0.129

10

0.056

0.050

Average

0.151

0.123

Standard Deviation

0.052

0.061

Table 1: Integrated EMG ( millivolt ) values of all topics for dominant and non-dominant arm

Figure 2: Mean and Standard divergence of incorporate EMG ( millivolt ) values of dominant and non-dominant arm for all topics

Power is the chance ( prob = 1 – ? ) of right rejecting void hypothesis when it truly is false. Power analysis was done utilizing G Power package. From the power analysis, the chance of rejecting void hypothesis was 0.4147. For 80 % power the sample size should be 28.

For the 2nd t-test the topics were divided into two classs based on gender. Two odd one tailed t-tests were performed to find the difference between male and female for dominant and non-dominant manus. A odd t-test was chosen because the male and female are two different independent groups and a one tailed trial was chosen because the alternate hypothesis suggests that one mean will be greater than othe R to demo a difference/change in between males and female for dominant and non-dominant arm. For this trial we have 5 male topics 5 female topics in each group. First, the difference between the strongest clinch and the weakest clinch was taken for every topic to cipher fatigues. Then the t-test was performed on the group for dominant arm and the P value was found to be 0.195 at significance degree of 0.05. So we failed to reject our Null hypothesis. The t-test was performed on the group for non-dominant arm and the P value was found to be 0.103 at significance degree of 0.05. So we failed to reject our Null hypothesis

Capable

Dominant arm ( mV-sec )

Non-Dominant arm ( mV-sec )

Male

Female

Male

Female

1

0.132

0.209

0.086

0.137

2

0.215

0.165

0.109

0.089

3

0.189

0.138

0.193

0.129

4

0.190

0.056

0.258

0.050

5

0.103

0.113

0.099

0.081

Average

0.166

0.136

0.149

0.097

Standard Deviation

0.046

0.057

0.071

0.036

Table 2: Integrated EMG ( mV-sec ) values of dominant and non-dominant arm for males and females

Figure 3: Mean and Standard divergence of incorporate EMG ( millivoltsec ) values of dominant arm between male and female

Figure 4: Mean and Standard divergence of incorporate EMG ( mV-sec ) values of non-dominant arm between male and female

Power is the chance ( prob = 1 – ? ) of right rejecting void hypothesis when it truly is false. Power analysis was done utilizing G Power package. From the power analysis, the chance of rejecting void hypothesis for dominant arm was 0.2081 and for non-dominant arm was 0.3626. For 80 % power the sample size for dominant arm should be entire 78 with 39 per group and for non-dominant arm should be entire 34 with 17 per group.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:

From the consequences and analysis, we failed to reject the void hypothesis for the first t-test. The void hypothesis in the experiment states that there is no alteration in musculus activity with weariness between dominant and non-dominant arm for all topics. The overall mean for dominant arm is 0.15105 and for the non-dominant arm is 0.123205.This indicates that there is a difference in the two agencies i.e. there is a alteration in musculus activity with weariness between dominant arm and non-dominant arm in all topics. Low statistical power of 0.4147 indicates that a type II mistake of hypothesis testing was committed. To rectify this mistake power analysis was done. The sample size should be as specified in the consequences so that the void hypothesis can be rejected. A alteration in musculus activity with weariness between dominant arm and non-dominant arm in all topics for this experiment can be supported by the undermentioned literature. The grade of weariness that develops during exercising may be affected by musculus size and, accordingly, vascular bottleneck during contraction.2By and large the dominant arm has good developed musculuss with good blood perfusion compared to the non-dominant manus bespeaking that grade of weariness is less in that manus. Therefore depending on the musculus size and blood flow during contraction the musculus activity with weariness either increases or lessenings.

From the consequences and analysis, we failed to reject the void hypothesis for the 2nd two t-tests as good. The void hypothesis in the experiment states that there is no difference in the fatigue degree between male and female for dominant and non-dominant arm. The overall mean of dominant arm for males is 0.1660 and for female is 0.1361 and of the non-dominant arm for males is 0.1491 and for female is 0.09731.This indicates that there is a difference in the two agencies between male and female for both weaponries i.e. there is a alteration in musculus activity with weariness for dominant arm and non-dominant arm between males and females. So type II mistake of hypothesis testing has been identified. To rectify this mistake power analysis was done. The sample size should be as specified in the consequences subdivision so that the void hypothesis can be rejected. From the consequences it can be seen that, male have greater values of musculus activity ( millivolt ) than female for both dominant and non-dominant arm, this can be supported by the undermentioned literature. Differences in fatigability across age or gender could happen as a consequence of differences in nervous thrust, fiber-type composing, contractile map, musculus membrane irritability, metabolic capacity, or musculus mass and blood flow.2Since the ratio of type 2 to type 1 fibre in male is comparatively higher than in female, they can bring forth a greater clinch force than female.3Although in this experiment the consequences back up the fact that work forces can bring forth a greater clinch force than females. Further research is still required as the sample size of the experiment is little so it’s non sufficient to stand for a general population. Besides clench force and musculus strength can be increased by preparation.

Mentions:

  1. Silverthorn, Dee Unglaub.Human physiology: an incorporate attack. San Francisco: Pearson/Benjamin Cummings,398-439 ( 2007 ) .
  2. Kent-Braun, J. A. , Doyle, J. W. & A ; Towse, T. F. ,J. Appl. Physiol.93, 1813-1823 ( 2002 ) .
  3. Hunter, S. K. & A ; Enoka, R. M. ,J. Appl. Physiol.91, 2686-2694 ( 2001 ) .